For the first time, scientists have measured what actually happens with face-to-face interactions when employees start to work at an open-plan office - and their results show these modern workspaces are not as collaborative as you'd think.
题目：Is working from home a good thing or bad thing?
There are full of distractions, from chatty colleagues to incessantly ringing phones. But it seems open-plan offices also hold another source of stress for women – their appearance.
（雅思参谋题：Recently some people can work from home using modern technology. Some say this only benefits the workers, but not the employers. To what extent do you agree or disagree?）
当伊恩 · Wright二〇一八年 10月从她的家在London开首职业时，他认为他有优良的安装程序。When 伊恩 Wrightstarted working from his home in London last November, he thought he had the ideal setup.
Tens of thousands of workers across the country enjoy a cup of tea and a biscuit at their desks but now a study has revealed you should never dunk at the office if you want to keep your colleagues on side.
Two researchers from Harvard Business School and Harvard University wanted to empirically test whether removing walls at a real-world workplace really does increase interactions between co-workers.
范文：Think Outside the Cube: Why the Office Isn't the Best Workspace (Forbes, 2012)
Modern open workspaces put women under pressure to dress up, buy elegant clothes and wear make-up, a study has found.
Dunking at your desk is considered a major faux-pas by a fifth of British tea drinking office workers, according to a new survey of 2,000 employees by McVitie's.
"To our knowledge, no prior study has directly measured the effect on actual interaction that results from removing spatial boundaries to create an open office environment," Ethan S. Bernstein and Stephen Turban write in the paper.
Rubbing shoulders with bosses in one shared office may encourage women to dress for the job they want. This means looking ‘conventionally business-like and feminine’, the researchers said.
八个月后，他试着把宝宝放在全职打点。他回到了餐桌，有些那贰次它会工作。房屋维修、 家务、 邮递员，全部的只是犹如陷入的办法。Wright说，"这些小事会刚分手笔者流，"。"你2018年终的一天，和你划伤你的头和偶发性，全部的时光去何地？"
That's in spite of a whopping 71 percent admitting they love to soak their biscuit in a cuppa.
To that end, they approached two multinational companies that were re-organising their office spaces at the global headquarters, and enlisted small groups of employees for two studies.
从回家的挫败原因之一专业︰ 太多的苦恼 (信用︰ 盖蒂图片社)
But standards of dress may also rise because there are so many people to impress. Researchers at Anglia Ruskin University and the University of Bedfordshire spent three years studying the behavior of around 1,000 employees.
Think Outside the Cube: Why the Office Isn't the Best Workspace
The study also showed that other deplorable biscuit offences include opening a packet of biscuits that didn't belong to them, reports Cosmopolitan.com.
For eight weeks before the office redesign and eight weeks afterward, the researchers tracked employees' social interactions using sociometric badges, and location using Bluetooth sensors.
Interviews with female local authority staff, who moved from small, separate offices into a large shared space, found they felt ‘there isn’t anywhere that you don’t feel watched’.
If you were to land on Earth as an outsider and observe the way we work, you would assume the following: that we are our most creative, prolific selves between 9 AM and 5 PM, that group meetings are bastions of productivity, and that the best way to accelerate thought is by confining it inside walls.
Leaving a trail of crumbs on someone's desk was also considered to be an abomination, with 38 percent calling this a major faux-pas.
This data was analysed together with email and instant messaging info from the company's servers to measure differences in how people were communicating with each other.
Alison Hirst, of Anglia Ruskin’s Lord Ashcroft International Business School, said: ‘When changing from a more closed, compartmentalized office space to a new open-plan [office] … workers were more conscious of their visibility and often found this unsettling rather than liberating.
When you think about it that way, our work patterns sound ridiculous.
Biscuits don't always divide colleagues however, according to another study.
What they found was a pretty staggering difference in face-to-face interactions - but not in the direction you might think.
‘Women in particular felt anxious about the idea of being constantly watched, and felt they had to dress in a certain way.’
But, decades ago, when we moved from assembling widgets to assembling ideas, we never re-constructed our workspaces to optimize for our work as thinking beings.
那是以斯帖 Canonico 514 工人最近登出的钻研告诉中的发掘。Canonico，大不列颠及英格兰联合王国London经院部处理，八个后生说在家工人在他的商量未有接受任何培训或教导怎样拔掉过渡。由于近50%的他探究了 514 人在家专职职业或在他们的日程计划有一定的油滑，它加起来。
A previous survey by McVitie's found that half of British workers say sharing the sweet treats with colleagues makes them feel happier, with more than a quarter saying they even helped forge stronger relationships.
Across both experiments, employees' social interactions in person decreased by a crazy 70 percent, while emails saw an uptick by roughly 20 to 50 percent.
为了使从家里的做事成功，制止随便安装，选取三个点名的办公空间 (信用︰ 盖蒂图片社)
In the study, published in the journal?Gender, Work and Organisation, Dr Hirst described women dressing more smartly and spending more on clothes after moving to an open-plan office in an organization where senior female managers were known for their smart attire.
Instead, we built offices that constricted thought and creativity, and we forced people into patterns that may have been based in reason (the 40-hour work week, for instance, was a carry-over from the worker’s rights movement during the Industrial Revolution), but that have persisted long past the point where they’re effective.
假定您达成了你协和，你了解在家职业不是归纳，展开你的笔记本计算机，正事。培训— — 某一个人脑瓜疼和旁人的我们鞭长莫及获取丰盛的 — — 能够使成功与战败的区分不在办公室。
Ten percent of office workers say that sharing biscuits even helped them bag a romantic date with one of their colleagues.
So, instead of spending more time "collaborating" with co-workers in the sprawling new space where everyone could see them, people got their heads down and tried to preserve their privacy any way they could (hello, huge headphones).
A learning and development manager in the office said: ‘People’s level of dress just went up … people seemed to have more respect for themselves.’ Another staff member said she swapped her cardigan for a jacket and spent a lot of money on clothes.
To be fair, there was a time when we needed offices.
之所以，确切地说，那样的管住看想怎么着在我们的生存？嗯，对于初学者的话，我们将有望会报告大家供给二个特意的办公室或工作区中，为大家的家庭和别的中断的界线。这是说比做更便于。（问问教师罗Bert· E · 凯利，"BBC 老爸，"今后本人少年的孩子冲进了房子，现场的TV访谈中，成为了网络meme）。
According to the research, people in social care are the biggest biscuit sharers at work, followed by accountants and teachers.
According to these results, it appears that being forced into a more open-plan environment can make people switch from chatting to others in person to sending an email or using instant messaging instead.
若果您不卖力去被"看到"你能够过去奖分配 (信用︰ 盖蒂图片社)
Making a phone call for work meant you needed to be seated at a desk.
However, some workforces love their biscuits so much, they just can't bear to share them, with more than a third of British workers confessing to going to great lengths to keeping them all for themselves.
As the team notes, it's not automatically a negative thing, but it can certainly change work dynamics in an unexpected way.
Your files could only be found in massive filing cabinets.
More than a quarter of construction workers have eaten biscuits in their car so colleagues wouldn't see, while 17 percent of IT workers confess to eating biscuits on the sly.
"That can have profound consequences for how - and how productively - work gets done," the researchers conclude.
Your computer—once it finally shrunk down from the size of a room—had to stay on your desk unless you had a side career as a body builder.
And a fifth of those working in hospitality and entertainment admit to hiding away their treats in the company toilet so they can enjoy their favorite biscuits in secret.
It's really starting to look like this whole open plan shtick needs more investigation. According to the team, previous studies using surveys have shown that open plan offices can have some negative psychological effects, reducing employee satisfaction, focus, and their feelings of having privacy at work.
而是，您可能会想，在家专门的学问是办公生活的圣杯 — — 没有所需的脸时间、 质量推断结果不在办公室和未有一天两小时通勤的存在。
’Almost every piece of equipment you needed made it virtually impossible to work anywhere but the office.
它能认为到正式平常隔开分离在家职业 (信用︰ 盖蒂图片社)
Judi James, communication and body language expert, told FEMAIL: 'We live in a digital world where we're more connected than ever, with a growing number of 'digital friends', but it's those moments of real human connection that are increasingly important and help to support our own physical and emotional health.
And don't even get us started on hot-desking.
缓慢解决最不利的是跟远程工作是根本。这是Tim · Campbell作为专职在家职员和工人的亚玉龙雪山大 · 曼化解方案，环球外包和提问公司学到的了。
But now, few people would say they’re most productive and creative during a standard workday or in a standard office.
Campbell，过去在大不列颠及英格兰联合王国BBC 一获取 二零零五 年节目学徒 》 ，已协理在对接到灵活的年月安插建议别的铺面，三年前被她协和集团的此举的一局地，令人家工人。未来，一成的厂家的 3500 名职工在家做事。它并不总是弹无虚发。
'The simple act of sharing biscuits with friends or colleagues can facilitate those little moments of face-to-face connection that can have a significant impact on your work and social life.'
You know the pain if you're one of those folks whose management once shook things up by taking away your desk and forcing you to scrounge for space in a "flexible workspace" area with weird lighting fixtures and oddly shaped furniture.
There’s significant amounts of research at our fingertips (check out Your Brain at Work by David Rock or The Way We’re Working Isn’t Working by Tony Schwartz) about how and when the human brain is most productive—and yet, we still largely function in offices that are, at their worst, simply assembly lines with places to sit.
反倒，大家应有把它想象成其余新的高风险，与嵌入的过程。在家做事周周两到四日在第二次以前会专职不在办公室。不断地深入分析若是您像在此此前，您用过此前的小业主令你测定和收回这一特权的生产性 — — 大概，更不好的是，把你当作贫乏潜质。
Studies have shown that people forced to share workspaces reported feeling marginalised, experienced more distractions, negative relationships and uncooperative behaviour, not to mention feeling like their supervisors were being less supportive.
Tim · Campbell公司做会议通过录制会议对在家工人 (信用︰ Alamy)
Traditionally, workspaces have been built with limited customization options.
找到如何呆在办公，有关。在亚焦山大 · 曼恩Campbell说，通过进行摄像会议，会议确定保证以致在家做事的职工有的时候间限制的脸时间和高管娘。这家集团也采取叁个称作 Yammer 的闲话服务，意味着你永世不会远远地离开上级交谈。它推向甘休由总局以后又叁回和大工作人士会议，亲自出马，并非永远的断开连接的声响隐隐免提。
"While these [shared workspace] environments can work well for some employees – those who are highly mobile and autonomous, for instance – the research shows that many employees do not work well in these environments," organisational behaviour researcher Libby Sander wrote in The Conversation last year.
Other than a few moveable walls or slightly re-arrangeable furniture, an office stays how it’s built.
But since companies can save money on walls, doors, and general floor space by cramming us all together, we're not sure if open plan trends are going away any time soon - so it could be worthwhile to hone your skills on how to minimise distractions at work.
Companies take different approaches here: Some jam-pack the space with cubicles and individual offices, while others have wide-open spaces with communal areas.
重组家庭和办公室不吻合Pedro Caseiro，共同创立一家商场堪当 Obby 二〇一八年后平试图从她的London职业的人。想要存钱，他和他的伴儿们决定同期开垦三个应用程序，能够扶持大家在家劳作类在细节中觅像陶器、 烹调理水墨画。
But the problem is, both of these extremes are in direct conflict with how our brains work.
"它是这几个微的作业，不会时有爆发假让你在办公室的艺术花你一天的年月，"Caseiro 说。在 6 月，公司从事于办公空间。
We actually need different workspaces depending on the time of day, the task at hand, and what exactly we’re trying to accomplish.
Caseiro 尽管不反对在家劳作。在她的行事，Caseiro 说，比比较多有文采的网页开垦人士期待一个心灵手巧、 在家的时间表。他重视的开垦者，事实上，住在献身葡萄牙共和国南边阳光充沛，沙滩紧邻和仍指甲全数他的结尾期限。
Research by Joan Meyers-Levy in 2006, for example, showed that high ceiling height helps us think more broadly and draw more connections between unrelated subjects.
He could spend time with his two-month-old baby while he worked for his brand-new company, British Business Energy, which helps companies compare rates for electric and gas suppliers. From a two-bedroom home in the borough of Greenwich, he set up at his dining room table with big plans to master being an at-home dad and business owner.
None of it worked. “There was a moment right at the start where hopes and dreams end and reality sets in,” Wright says. “I quickly came to the conclusion that it just wasn’t working.”
Other studies have shown that environments with red as one of the primary colors are conducive to good performance on short-term memory tasks.
You scratch your head and wonder, where did all the time go?
Two months later he tried putting the baby in full-time childcare. He returned to the dining room table, certain this time it would work. House repairs, chores, the postman, all of it, just seemed to get in the way. “Those little things would just break up my flow,” Wright says. “You get to the end of the day, and you scratch your head and wonder, where did all the time go?”
Environments where employees are surrounded in blue, on the other hand, are more conducive to creativity.
One reason work from home fails: too many distractions (Credit: Getty Images)
A month later, Wright realised he just couldn’t be productive working from home. He rented a desk at a co-working space near the London Bridge, and finally, he was cranking away.
Exposure to nature—whether through windows or outdoor space—also has a significant impact, by helping us pay attention and reducing feelings of aggression.
Working from home has its benefits, with research showing that it generally increases happiness and productivity. But a new study also shows that you ought to be careful before making the break with your office.
First, the training
So, the ideal office would be one that offers a variety of different types of space (private individual offices, both structured and relaxed group spaces, areas that can be dedicated to specific projects) and is highly customizable (hmm—color changing walls?).
Flexible schedules are likely to become far more commonplace in the coming years; already some companies have adopted “hot-desking” providing fewer desks than there are employees in an effort to save money and encourage remote work days. Laws in the UK allow many workers to ask for more flex time, and companies across the globe are using work-at-home policies as a way to recruit.
Working from home is not as simple as opening your laptop and getting down to business
We need spaces where we can have peace and quiet to complete intense thinking tasks, but we also need to have collaborative, open spaces where—to borrow Matt Ridley’s phase—ideas can have sex with each other, allowing them to transform from simple thoughts into something much more substantial.
But the problems with working from home begin right from the start. That’s because we think everybody can do all aspects of their job away from the office.
That’s what Esther Canonico found in a recently published study of 514 workers. Canonico, a fellow with the London School of Economics Department of Management, says the at-home workers in her study didn’t receive any training or guidance in how to pull off the transition. It added up since nearly half of the 514 people she studied either worked from home full-time or had some flexibility in their schedules.
So where do we go from here?
To make working from home successful, avoid haphazard setups and opt for a designated office space (Credit: Getty Images)
If you’ve done it yourself, you know that working from home is not as simple as opening your laptop and getting down to business. Training—something some of us loathe and others of us can’t get enough of—can make the difference between failure and success away from the office.
Slowly, the knowledge about how our brains work—once relegated to academic papers—is finally getting the attention it deserves.
“There is simply not enough active managing of the procedure of working from home,” Canonico said. “What happens when you don’t actively manage the practice, is that it gets out of hand.”
So what, exactly, would that sort of management look like in our lives? Well, for starters, we’d likely be told we need a dedicated office or workspace, with boundaries for our families and other interruptions. That’s easer said than done. (Just ask professor Robert E Kelly, the “BBC dad,” who became an Internet meme after his young children burst into the room during a live TV interview.)
Companies that have stumbled with the old model are starting to innovate.
If you don't make the effort to be "seen" you could be passed over for prize assignments (Credit: Getty Images)
Then there are the everyday pitfalls that can lead to serious career damage or stagnation, Canonico said. For instance, if you aren’t in the office and your presence isn’t felt, you’re likely to miss out on new projects and opportunites as they’re doled out to someone the boss sees every day.
Of course, cubicles aren’t going to disappear overnight (although that would be an awesome magic trick), but whether you work from home or out of an old-school office, you can do some things to make your workspace more conducive to producing great work.
[You can] become professionally and personally isolated
In fact, new research from the University of Arizona shows 40% of employees who were working from home feel disconnected from the company’s strategic direction and one-third feel like they don’t get support from bosses, according to Joe Carella, assistant dean of executive education at University of Arizona’s Eller College of Management.
If you work from home, start by making your space as multi-functional as possible.
“People working from home become professionally and personally isolated,” Canonico says. “They say ‘out of sight, out of mind’.”
Small steps toward flex
Stash power strips (with extra power cords if you can) near a few different potential workspaces—a desk or table, or your favorite chair.
But, you might be thinking, working from home is the holy grail of office life—no required face time, performance judged by results not presence in the office, and no two-hour-a-day commute.
It can feel professionally isolating working from home often (Credit: Getty Images)
If you make moving around your space less of a pain, you’ll increase the chances that you’ll actually move.
Mitigating the downsides that come with remote work is key. That’s what Tim Campbell has learned as both a part-time at-home employee of Alexander Mann Solutions, a global outsourcing and consultancy firm.
Campbell, who was the 2005 winner of the BBC One show The Apprentice in the UK, has helped advise other businesses during a transition into flexible schedules and was part of his own company’s move two years ago to allow at-home workers. Now, 10% of the firm’s 3,500 employees work from home. It doesn’t always go smoothly.
You can also give yourself more options for creative outlet—paint a wall or the back of a door with Idea Paint to give yourself a giant white board, or buy a roll of white butcher paper and suspend pieces from the wall with clips so that you can sketch out ideas.
“We talk about how much more productive workers can be, but we ignore the steps it takes to get there,” Campbell says.
Instead, we ought to think of it like any new venture, with an embedding process. Work from home for two or three days a week at first, before going full-time away from the office. Continually analyse if you’re as productive as you were previously, before the bosses make the determination for you and revoke the privilege—or, worse, write you off as lacking potential.
Or, get out of the house altogether—scope out which coffee shops, restaurants, and other venues in your area offer free Wi-Fi, or think about investing in a mobile hotspot or USB modem so that you can work anywhere that inspires you.
Tim Campbell's company does meetings by video conference for at-home workers (Credit: Alamy)
Find ways to stay relevant in the office. At Alexander Mann, Campbell says that’s done with meetings held by video conferencing, making sure even staffers working at home have regular face time with the bosses. The company also uses a chat service called Yammer that means you’re never far from a conversation with the higher-ups. And it helps to stop by the office now and again and show up in person for the big staff meetings, rather than always be the disconnected voice on the staticky speakerphone.
Done with coffee places?
Be sure you’re finding ways to stay relevant in the office
“The assumption for many people is that when they start working from home they’ll just morph into the same person they were at the office, just in a different environment,” Campbell said. “That can happen, but only with a lot of work to get you there.”
Try co-working and use a site like Loosecubes to help you locate spaces or offices with extra desks that are often available by the day.
When it doesn’t work
Combining home and office didn’t work for Pedro Caseiro, who tried working out of his London flat after co-founding a company called Obby last year. Looking to save money, he and his partners decided to work from home while developing an app that helps people find classes in things like pottery, cooking, and photography.
If you’re working out of an office, your choices are more limited, but there are still options.
Caseiro quickly realised that interruptions, like a visit from the plumber or cooking lunch, added up to too many distractions.
I… know I’m better off working out of a traditional office
Stuck in a cubicle-laden environment, a former colleague of mine turned part of her cubicle into a reading nook with the help of two floor pillows and a brightly colored piece of fabric.
“It’s all these micro things that take time out of your day in a way that wouldn’t happen if you were in an office,” Caseiro says. In June the company committed to an office space.
Caseiro isn’t against working from home, though. In his line of work, Caseiro says many talented web developers expect a flexible, at-home schedule. His main developer, in fact, lives near the beach in sunny southern Portugal, and yet still nails all of his deadlines.
If you find yourself always having meetings cooped up in the same conference room, trying moving them to a different space, or hold the meeting in a coffee place, a park, or while walking around the block.
“I look at my own productivity and know I’m better off working out of a traditional office,” Caseiro says. “But I know I also have to be flexible in hiring. I try to look for whether people can do the tasks we need them to do and not think about where they’re going to do them from.”
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The bottom line? Think outside the eight-hour, cubicle-confine.