Do carrots really help you see in the dark? What about kiwis or kale? Can eating certain foods improve your eyesight or prevent your eyes degenerating? Perhaps we should all be taking supplements to benefit our vision? Research in both the US and Ireland has shown that supplementing the diet with certain key chemicals 9159com金沙网站，can significantly benefit your vision. These can be taken as supplements but they are also found widely in many green leafy plants and green and yellow fruit and vegetables.
告诉标题：The Power of Small Molecules to Explain How We See and How We Think
We all know that the blue light that emits from our smartphones isn't good for our eyes, but a new study has discovered just how much damage it can cause.
1. Your daily swim
报告人：Nasri Nesnas professor， Florida Institute of Technology
Blue light is a type of electromagnetic radiation with a very short wavelength that produces a high amount of energy.While it's true that light can damage your eyes under certain circumstances, there's no scientific evidence suggesting that blue light is harmful to our eyes.But many people still think it is, which is why blue light-blocking glasses are so popular.
The retina is the part of our eye that contains cells sensitive to light. The most delicate area of this tissue– the macula– is protected from harmful blue and UV light by yellowish ‘macular pigment’. This acts like sunglasses, blocking the damaging light. It comprises three pigments –lutein,zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin.
Researchers say that this light is absorbed by vital molecules in our retina and triggers the production of a toxic chemical that kill cells.
Swimming is hugely beneficial for your cardiovascular system but if you're not wearing goggles, your eyes might be suffering, especially if you're a contact lens wearer and you open your eyes underwater.
"Everyone is very concerned that (blue light) may be causing damage to the eye, and it's a valid concern, but there's no evidence it may be causing any irreversible damage," Dr. Rahul Khurana, clinical spokesman for the American Academy of Ophthalmologists, told Business Insider.
A research team led by Professor Nolan in Ireland has recently completed a year-long trial investigating the benefits of taking supplements of macular pigments. 100 participants took part in the experiments. The results showed that by taking lutein, zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin, there was a significant improvement in the protection of the macula, as well as in overall eyesight. There was also some evidence that these chemicals can help to slow down macular degeneration, which is the main cause of sight loss in the UK. However, this is somewhat controversial.
Abstract:Vision is inarguably the most dependable of the five senses. The retina contains light sensing protein receptors (rhodopsins) that incorporate a small polyene molecule derivative of vitamin A, known as 11-cis-retinal. Major clues on understanding the visual cycle have been established through the design of variations of the vitamin A light absorbing molecule, some of which will be presented. A detailed understanding of the inner workings of rhodopsin is not only critical from the stand point of solving mysteries of visual diseases, like Age-related Macular Degeneration (the leading cause of blindness), but also serves as a well established model for elucidating the mechanism of other G-protein coupled receptors . Furthermore, we show that the value of light absorbing molecules expands beyond vision and can be used to trigger neurons thereby aiding the delineation of complex neural networks.
This damage can lead to large blind spots in our vision that are the hallmark of macular degeneration, a disease that leads to blindness.
'The water in pools, rivers and the sea, or even the shower can leave your eyes vulnerable to bacterial infection,' warns Vision Direct optometrist Brendan O' Brien.
Blue light exposure is nothing new. In fact, the sun is the largest source of blue light. Moreover, blue light is also present in fluorescent and LED light.
Lutein is a yellow compound found only in plants, which produce it to absorb light. We can get lutein by eating foods like kale and spinach. It is also present in egg yolk. Zeaxanthin, another yellow compound similar to lutein, is found in such foods as corn, yellow bell peppers and saffron. Meso-zeaxanthin is not generally found in food sources, though it can be found in some fish. It is created in the retina from ingested lutein. It can be taken in supplements made with marigold extracts.
The team from the University of Toledo in Ohio says it is urging the public to not use phones in the dark because this can dilate pupils and lead to even more harmful blue light entering our eyes.
'The microorganism acanthamoeba lives in water and can cause serious damage if it gets into your eye'.
But if blue light isn't harmful, then why are we constantly rubbing our peepers when we're looking at our screens? The answer is eyestrain: More than 60 percent of people experience problems associated with digital eyestrain. And blue light, it seems, isn't the cause.Instead, our eyes are so strained because most of us blink less when we stare at our digital devices.
As for carrots, it turns out that it’s the leafy green bits on the top that contain the key compounds beneficial to eyesight, rather than the vegetable itself. So next time you’re told carrots help you see in the dark, save them for the rabbit and chop up some kiwi instead!
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss for those aged 50 or older, according to the National Eye Institute.
'Wearing contact lenses makes us more vulnerable because the bacteria attaches to the lens and can cause the surface of your eye to become inflamed and eventually infected,' says O'Brien.
So if eyestrain is the real issue, blue light-blocking glasses are probably useless. However, wearing them could potentially help you get a good night's sleep. That's because blue light, research has shown, affects your body's circadian rhythm, your natural wake and sleep cycle. According to Harvard researchers, any kind of light — including blue light — can tamp down your body's ability to secrete melatonin, a hormone that helps you sleep.
The condition occurs when the macula, an oval area near the center of the retina that allows for sharp vision, becomes damaged.
Contact lenses will also naturally absorb any water around them, which could change their shape dramatically. This will make them uncomfortable to wear, often causing your vision to become distorted and blurry.
Position your screen 20-30 inches away from your face, and make sure your eyes are level with the very top of your monitor. The key thing to remember is that you should be looking slightly down at your work. The center of the screen should be located between 15 and 20 degrees below horizontal eye level.
Sufferers will experience blurred vision or even 'blind spots' in their central vision that may grow larger as the retina dies.
If you really must wear your lenses in the pool stick to daily disposables along with waterproof swimming goggles, or better still invest in a pair of prescription goggles which will help you see clearly without water coming in direct contact with your eyes.
Follow the 20-20-20 rule. Look away from your screen every 20 minutes for 20 seconds at a time and focus on a fixed point 20 feet away.
Treatments include medications that stop new blood vessels from forming in the eye as well as laser therapies that destroy abnormal blood vessels.
2. Your out of date mascara
Most monitors let you adjust the color temperature manually. It's best to use a warmer (yellowish) color temperature in dark rooms and a colder (bluer) color temperature in bright rooms.
For this study, the team decided to focus on retinal, a form of vitamin A found in the retina that coverts light into metabolic energy.
You know how your mascara gets all clumpy after three or four months, but you don't want to buy a new one because that stuff is pricey?
Photoreceptor cells, known more commonly as rods and cones, use retinal to covert light into signals that are sent to the brain.
Well, it's time to cull your make-up bag of all out of date eye make-up, especially mascara, yes even your favorite Chanel one you bought in 2016.
'The human eye reflects UV light (such as from the sun) very well but it allows blue light to enter and the retinal can absorb blue light very well,' lead author Dr Ajith Karunarathne, an assistant professor in the UT department of chemistry and biochemistry, told Daily Mail Online.
Mascara can harbor bacteria which can cause infections leading to redness, light sensitivity and irritation and, in rare cases, even blindness. Liquid liner and mascara have a shelf life of around three months once opened.
Dr Karunarathne noted that blue light alone or retinal that hadn't absorbed blue light did not have any effect on the cells.
Unopened, well-formulated cosmetics can remain stable for a couple of years.
He added that there was no activity when retinal was exposed to other light colors such as green, red or yellow.
What's more, eye make-up applied inside the eyeline, such as eyeliner, can increase the risk of eye infection, according to research from the University of Waterloo published in the peer-reviewed journal.
The team did find a molecule, a vitamin E derivative known as alpha tocopherol, that can stop the cells from dying.
The research by the scientist Dr Alison Ng found that contact lens wearers were more vulnerable to infection from eye make-up. Dr Ng recommends preventing bacterial transfer by sharpening eye pencils thoroughly before each use.
'When you damage the photoreceptor cells, they’re damaged for good, so the vitamin E derivative currently just mitigates damage,' said Dr Karunarathne.
Similarly, false eyelashes could put your eyes at risk. According to experts, false eyelashes are a hygiene risk because they tend to trap dirt and bacteria, while poor quality, unhygienic lashes increase the risk, so it's important to find a reputable beautician.
'We're currently screening for more molecules to see if they can quench this damaging reaction.'
3. Skipping your annual eye test
He explained that as we get older, the ability to prevent attacks from retinal that has absorbed blue light became weaker, which leads to macular degeneration.
'An eye test can turn up health problems like diabetes, glaucoma and high blood pressure, all of which can lead to serious eye problems and even blindness if left unchecked,' says O'Brien.
Dr Karunarathne says some of the ways we can protect ourselves include wearing sunglasses that can filter both UV and blue light, using blue light filters on our phones, and not looking at cell phones or tablets in the dark.
Even arthritis which causes joint inflammation can be spotted with an eye test, because the inflammation also turns up in the eye and will eventually attack the eye too if left untreated.
'Looking at cell phones in the dark can be very harmful because the pupils are dilated so more blue light can get in and cause damage,' he said.
'Most optometrists recommended taking an eye test every two years, unless you have eye issues or are over 70, in which case, a test every 12 months is best to catch any health problems early,' says O'Brien.
'Children up to the age of 16 should be tested annually too, according to the College of Optometrists, as children's vision can change very rapidly at this stage of their lives.'
4. Staring at your smartphone
Staring at your smartphone or computer screen or TV for hours on end is not good for your eye health, says research by the University of Toledo, published in?Scientific Reports.
That's because these screens emit blue light which is absorbed by vital cells in the eye's retina triggering toxic chemicals, which can eventually kill the photoreceptors we need for vision. And the older you get the more vulnerable you are.
The study's lead researcher Dr Ajith Karunarathne, an assistant professor in the UT department of chemistry and biochemistry says we shouldn't be checking phones and tablets in the dark, because this can dilate the pupils making them more vulnerable to damage.
Dr Karunarathne explains wearing glasses with an anti-glare coating that filters blue light, or adding a blue light filter screen to your phone or computer.
5. That casual smoking habit
9159com金沙网站：每日翻译，防蓝光眼镜真有用吗。We hardly need to say it: smoking is BAD, but few of us realize it damages our eyes. 'Smoking increases risk of cataracts and age related macular degeneration (AMD), which is a common condition that affects the middle part of your vision. In fact, AMD is Britain's leading cause of sight loss.
'AMD occurs when the small central portion of the retina, known as the macula, deteriorates and is the major cause of blindness in the over fifties, ' says O' Brien.
Risk of AMD doubles with smoking over fifty, says one British study published in?The British Journal of Ophthalmology. So that's another reason to sign up for Stoptober.
6. Forgetting to wear sunglasses
You might think your sunnies are no longer needed now that the dark nights are closing in. Not so says O'Brien. UV is still an issue on overcast winter days.
'Although the UV count is typically higher on sunnier days, it is important to bear in mind that up to 80% of UV radiation can penetrate cloud, meaning that forgetting to wear sunglasses on an overcast day can still damage your eyes,' says O'Brien.
'That means it's just as good an idea to pop on a pair of shades on a sunny December morning as it is on a hot July afternoon.'
But don't think just because your glasses are dark tinted they offer ultra violet protection. 'The tint of a sunglasses lens has no effect on UV protection,' says O'Brien.
'While wearing darker lenses means that less light will enter your eye and will help you see better, the same amount of UV is blocked as if you were wearing shades with a lighter tint.'
And unless your sunglasses are offering good UV coverage, the tint means they will dilate your pupils and allow more UV light in than normal, so it's potentially worse than going without sunglasses if your glasses aren't up to scratch.
The message? Don't fall for those designer look-alikes, unless you can verify their UV credentials. 'Look for a CE mark (a European standard of UV protection),' says O'Brien.
Look for styles that fit close to your face and don't let light in at the side and if you're a contacts wearer opt for brands like Acuvue with UV filters included or remember to wear sunglasses with your contact lenses.
Warning: Your eyes are even more susceptible to burning than your skin. As it's harder to tell when your eyes are getting burnt than it is when your skin starts turning red, it's easy to end up doing lasting damage to your eyes without knowing.
Frequent exposure to UV can lead to the development of eye conditions such as cataracts and AMD which can impair sight and even cause partial or total blindness.
Indeed, one systematic review published in 2014 of scientific research on the subject found that sunlight exposure to eyes was a key risk factor in the development of AMD.
7. Your fan
Leaving a fan running all night can increase irritation and dry eyes for contact lens wearers. Why? Because fans blow allergens like dust or pollen towards your eyes as you sleep, so that when you insert your lenses in the morning these deposits cause irritation and discomfort.
The fix? Thoroughly dust bedroom surfaces, including the fan blades and keep a bottle of contact lens solution handy to cleanse your lenses to remove any impurities.
Consider setting a timer on your fan, so it switches off shortly after you doze off and wear a sleep mask, so your eyes are protected.
8. Over-using eye drops
While it's tempting to reach for the eye drops rather than put up with looking like a pink-eyed bunny, you can have too much of a good thing, say experts, as plenty of eye drops can lead to a rebound effect.
Rebound redness results because the blood vessels in the eye dilate as the effects of the medication in the drops wears off, creating a vicious circle. What should we do instead? 'Try to pinpoint the cause and deal with it, ' says O'Brien.
If, for example, your eyes are dry due to cold winter weather and central heating, invest in a humidifier and try not to sit too close to a radiator.
Rehydrate by drinking lots of water and eat plenty of foods rich in A, C and E vitamins and omega-3 fats, like salmon. And when the wind starts whistling, don your sunglasses to protect your eyes from the biting cold.
How often you can use eye drops safely will depend on the type, says O' Brien.
'There are two types: eye drops with preservatives and preservative-free eye drops. Eye drops that contain preservatives have a longer shelf life. The preservatives are chemicals that prevent bacteria from growing. This allows you to use one bottle of eye drops for a length of time.
'However, the preservatives in OTC eye drops cause eye irritation to become worse. Eye specialists typically recommend that you use this type of eye drop no more than four times a day.' Preservative-free eye drops are best for those with sensitive eyes.