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原标题:9个常用短语背后的起源故事

浏览次数:104 时间:2019-07-06

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#字词篇

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Riding shotgun真的跟猎枪有关

Put the screw on 施加压力,强迫

The Elements of Style

  1. I ended up flunking the quiz. And I will definitely be looking for a way to pay her back for that one.

10:03 P.M. The Starbucks outside Bras Basah MRT station.

"Riding shotgun" is the ideal place to ride during on a road trip. But in the Old West, the person sitting in the passenger seat was required to do a whole lot more than find the perfect radio station.

Beth's mother puts the screw on her and hopes she can get married before 30.

周六翻开了下William Strunk, Jr.的The Elements of Style。那是一本介绍德文骨干写作准绳的书。通过此书能够对比浅的垂询下William Strunk, Jr.是怎么样提炼简洁明了的言语,防止接纳部分平淡,模凌两可的词汇。怎样写好三个让读者看懂的传说。

end up doing something/end up with doing something以……收场/结尾

I sat at the French window, sipping my hot coco. My mom was poking at the blueberry muffin in the plate, her fork making sporadic jingling noises.  

在当代,riding shotgun指的是汽车里的副开车座。在以往的美利哥西头,副开车座上的人要做的可不唯有是调到多少个好电视台那么粗略。

Eddie puts the screw on himself to study hard so as to enter his ideal university.

Chapter1:Elementary Rules of Usage

  1. Form the possessive singular of nouns with 's.
    例:

Charles's friend
Burns's poems
the witch's malice

But such forms as Achilles' heel, Moses' laws, Isis' temple are commonly replaced by:

the heel of Achilles
the laws of Moses
the temple of Isis

  1. In a series of three or more terms with a single conjunction, use a comma after each term except the last.
    例:

red, white, and blue
honest, energetic, but headstrong
He opened the letter, read it, and made a note of its contents.

  1. Enclose parenthetic expressions between commas.
    例:

The best way to see a country, unless you are pressed for time, is to travel on foot.
In 1769, when Napoleon was born, Corsica had but recently been acquired by France.
Nether Stowey, where Coleridge wrote The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, is a few miles from Bridgewater.

  1. Place a comma before and or but introducing an independent clause.

The early records of the city have disappeared, and the story of its first years can no longer be reconstructed.
The situation is perilous, but there is still one chance of escape.

  1. Do not join independent clauses by a comma.
    If two or more clauses, grammatically complete and not joined by a conjunction, are to form a single compound sentence, the proper mark of punctuation is a semicolon.

Stevenson's romances are entertaining; they are full of exciting adventures.
It is nearly half past five; we cannot reach town before dark.

  1. Do not break sentences in two.
    In other words, do not use periods for commas.

I met them on a Cunard liner several years ago. Coming home from Liverpool to New York.
He was an interesting talker. A man who had traveled all over the world, and lived in half a dozen countries.
Again and again he called out. No reply.

  1. A participial phrase at the beginning of a sentence must refer to the grammatical subject.

Walking slowly down the road, he saw a woman accompanied by two children.
He saw a woman, accompanied by two children, walking slowly down the road.

  1. Divide words at line-ends, in accordance with their formation and pronunciation.

a. Divide the word according to its formation:
know-ledge (not knowl-edge); Shake-speare (not Shakes-peare); de-scribe (not des-cribe); atmo-sphere (not atmos-phere);
b. Divide "on the vowel:"
edi-ble (not ed-ible); propo-sition; ordi-nary; espe-cial; reli-gious; oppo-nents; regu-lar; classi-fi-ca-tion (three divisions possible); deco-rative; presi-dent;
c. Divide between double letters, unless they come at the end of the simple form of the word:
Apen-nines; Cincin-nati; refer-ring; but tell-ing.

flunk: to fail an exam or a course

He caught my eye, abruptly yet naturally. He was a tall Eurasian man, sauntering on the pedestrian path with a ‘ToyCastle’ shopping bag in his hand. Toy boxes filled the bag and jutted out in irregular shapes like Santa Clause’s rucksack on Christmas Eve. I caught a glimpse of a maroon-colored train painted on the cover of a box, its locomotive glistening with golden gleam. The red colour shone proudly against the gray concrete floor. He had another backpack which seemed to be weighing him down all the more, but he kept up the casual meander and clutched the shopping bag tighter.

Stagecoach drivers in the Old West needed a person to literally "ride shotgun." The passenger would carry a shotgun in order to scare off robbers who might want to attack them, according to?Reader's Digest.

The landlord is putting the screws on to get her out of the house.

pay somebody back: to punish or hurt (someone who did something bad to one)

Curious speculations crept up to me as the warmth of the drink seeps into my palm. Is he a traveller? He might have made a promise to his son, to buy him the ‘big red train’ that the boy had always longed for. His boy wanted to be a locomotive driver in the future! As a father, he didn’t think it quite feasible, but he spoiled his dreams anyway. Or there might be a toy gun inside, AK-47 even, that he had fancied, too, marveling at it in the action movies they watched together. Or perhaps he wanted to give him a surprise. The boy might yell at the bag full of treasures and fumble in it running through everything in unbelieving, quivering excitement. Or he might have bought the gifts for amendments. Maybe they had had a terrible argument and he wasn’t prompt in making an apology. Would he like the iron man model? That cost him a lot. But as long as his boy likes it, money is never a problem.

据说U.S.杂志《读者文章摘要》的文章显示,曾在U.S.西部赶马车的人索要有人在游览途中保驾护航。副驾车座上的人要手持猎枪来吓退想要攻击马车的强盗。

Read the riot act  建议警告,加以攻讦

造句:The story ends up (with) his flunking in math, but he finally pays the girl who messes up his papers back.

Or he might be a local. He could work in the insurance company next door and had just signed a big deal. He wanted to celebrate it with his family! He ran to the toy store and bought all that his boy had badgered him for. He might even have a necklace, or a bracelet, or a ring in his bag for his wife!

Highway robbery真的是打劫

Tommy's mother read him the riot act when he broke the window by playing basketball in the house.

  1. It was an announcement that the school is having tryouts for a winter play. Man, I should have thrown that thing out when I saw it on the kitchen table.

Or he might even have a daughter, a little girl who is astonishingly conversant in guns, cars and aeroplanes. She wanted that big shiny train in her favourite colour! Or he might have a twin. Two boys who might fight over who is to be the owner of the train. But he had anticipated that possibility and bought one for each. Or he might have bought only one, and want to observe their reactions. Would the elder brother give in? He had always been the one making concessions and truthfully, it’s not always fair.

Most people would agree that paying $10 for your favorite cup of coffee is highway robbery. But the original definition of highway robbery once meant literally robbing travelers on or near the highway. The first known usage of the phrase was in 1611.

When Josh was caught cheating during the exam, the teacher read him the riot act

tryout: a trial to test somebody's suitability, especially to play sports team or play a role as an actor/a performance of a play staged prior to its official opening

Or he might have no children at all. Maybe he was expecting one. Those had been his dream toys when he was a boy himself! His family couldn’t afford such a luxury, and he didn’t want his child to live in eternal, fruitless waiting too.  

大部人会认可一杯可口的咖啡索价10欧元(68元人民币)是highway robbery(仗势欺人)。不过highway robbery原本的野趣正是在公路上或公路左近抢劫游客。那几个短语的使用最早见于1611年。

 

man这里就表示“天啊!”相似的发挥还会有boy!/Jesus Christ

Or he might ......

Painting the town red源自醉鬼恶行

Ring the changes 转变说或做的点子

throw something out: discard something as unwanted

He was turning his head now. He adjusted the strap of the bag and walked towards the zebra crossing. His shadow moved against the gray stretch of concrete ground. The light pole stood, showering his moving figure with mild, quiet, orange glimmer.

For you and your crew, "painting the town red" probably means getting glammed up for a fun night of drinks and dancing. However, the phrase originates from a night out that makes dancing on the bar seem tame.

Kelly enjoys ringing the changes and her apartment is decorated very often.

造句:Man, I shouldn't throw my brother's paintings out because they are prepared for my tryouts. 

I stared at his silhouette in the distance, watching him merge into the darkness of crowds.

对你和你的友人来讲,painting the town red的意思是美容得光鲜亮丽上午出来吃酒、跳舞。不过,这几个短语原本的情趣可比在酒吧跳舞劲爆多了。

Paul rings the changes with what he wears every week.

  1. I knew that would make Dad take my side. Dad and Mom argued for a few minutes, but Dad was no match for Mom.

9个常用短语背后的起源故事。I could almost imagine him going back home, or back to his hotel, and checking every piece in the ToyCastle bag meticulously before packing them into his luggage. He might be content, or wistful, or uneasy, or he wouldn’t feel much because he was too tired after one day of running errands. He could have fallen sound asleep ......

Back in 1837, the Marquis of Waterford went out for a night of drinking with some of his friends, according to Phrases.org. Afterward, the group went through the streets of a small English town destroying property. They broke windows, knocked over flower pots, and damaged door knockers. But things got really crazy when they got their hands on some red paint and literally painted the town red, including doors, a tollgate, and a swan statue.

Sell someone down the river 发卖某一个人,背叛有些人

take someone's side: to support one person,group,or opinion over another

What a rich collection of stories must have walked away.

据书上说拉霍亚湾ses.org 网址的记载,1837年,沃特福德足球俱乐部侯爵和几个对象夜出吃酒,后来他们经过一个英格兰小镇的大街时起始搞破坏:砸碎窗户、打翻花盆、损坏门环。那一个酒鬼获得了部分红真石漆后,局面就从头失控了,酒鬼们把全副村镇都刷成了青莲,包含门、一处关卡和一尊天鹅雕刻。

Steven criticized the policy of the company in front of the general manager. He will possibly be sold down the river if not being fired.

no match for: easily defeated by...

I thought of the word ‘sonder’ suddenly.

Pulling someone’s leg并不三番两次玩笑

 

造句:As for fighting, my brother is totally no match for me. He thinks our folks will take his side, but the reality just runs in an opposite way.

9个常用短语背后的起源故事。Sonder. n. the relization that each random passersby is living a life as vivid and complex as your own——populated with their own ambitions, friends, routines, worries and inhrited craziness——an epic story that continues invisibly around you like an anthill sprawling deep underground, with elaborate passageways to thousands of other lives that you'll never know existed, in which you might appear only once, as an extra sipping coffee in the background, as a blur of traffic passing on the highway, as a lighted window at dusk.

You probably think that pulling someone's leg is all in good fun. After all, what's the harm in a little joke, right? This commonly used phrase that today means playing an innocent joke meant something a lot more sinister years ago.

Paint the town (red) 痛饮作乐,纵情的欢腾庆祝,胡闹

  1. 9159com金沙网站,So I guess there are a lot of guys who have a bone to pick up with Patty Farrell.

When I first heard of it , it appeared extraordinary to me that there is a WORD to summarize that wonderfully intricate feeling of seeing a passer-by and being a passer-by simultaneously. We might have realized it more than once——when we engage in a lively conversation with the cashier, when we see a girl in two pony tails scampering by with her eyes lit bright, when we touch shoulder with an old man stooping, washing trays with his callous hands——that people all have a long sequence of stories with them, like a narrative movie, like a page-turner novel, if not more dramatic, or peaceful, or touching, or heart-wrenching than those that are ever written down for people to see.

你大致觉得pulling someone's leg(开某一个人的噱头)都很有趣。毕竟,开个小玩笑无伤大雅。那几个常用短语在前些天的意味是开个未有恶意的噱头,但多年前的情致却要邪恶得多。

Amy invites us to go to her birthday party tonight and we are going to paint the town red.

have a bone to pick up with somebody: to want to talk to someone about something annoying they have done**

In this world where everyone seems to be running, running on the escalator, running after buses, running for lunch and dinner, running in every minute, running everywhere in such an urgent manner that we seldom have the luxury of time to truly take a close look at ourselves, not to mention to people in our surrounding. But the truth is, everything we deem important is largely irrelevant in others’ lives. Our voice might only be a part of a confusing jumble of noise to others’ears. Even we ourselves——we could just be ‘an extra sipping coffee in the background, a blur of traffic passing on the highway, a lighted window at dusk’.

Thieves in 18th and 19th Century London would drag their victims to the ground by their legs in order to rob them, according to Phrases.org.

Justin paints the town red every day and never wants to find a proper full-time job.

造句:With a red face, My brother comes to me and it seems that he has a bone to pick up with me.

While this is the truth, it doesn’t mean we are a pathetic, lonely bunch. We can treat people the way we want to be treated back. For me, people that ran into my eyes are not random passers-by, but the main protagonist in his own play. He is a rich bundle of joy and sorrow, a person living his life to the fullest like I am doing for mine. Like a goldfish in a tank, swirling aimlessly to my eyes as a human. To it, however, every step is a purposeful stride towards something bigger, better and brighter.

依据海姆斯海滩ses.org 网址的记叙,18世纪和19世纪London的小偷会拉住受害人的腿将其拖倒在地,然后抢正官物。

As plain as a pikestaff  很显然,特别精晓

  1. I was hoping Mrs. Norton would just cut me from the play, but today she said that everyone who tried out is going to get a part.

Don’t be so fast to judge. With humility and patience, with the willingness to open up and imagine, with the empathy to listen and understand, the next time when you run into someone, ask yourself: what is his story?  

Paying through the nose北欧海盗真的做得出

The reason why Sue is angry with you is as plain as a pikestaff. You'd better apologize to her immediately.

cut somebody from the play与下文的kick somebody out of the play都以将有些人踢出……

You won't be happy if you think you're paying through the nose for something. Although you may feel like you're getting ripped off, at least you get to keep your face intact. The roots of this commonly used idiom come from a brutal tactic of The Dane Vikings of slitting someone's nose from tip to eyebrow if the person refused to pay their tax, according to Grammarist.

It is as plain as the nose on your face. If we spend too much money now, our plan to travel to Hawaii next month will only be a dream.

try out: a test to see how useful or effective something or someone is **

只要您以为本身paying through the nose for something(为某件东西花了好些个钱),料定喜欢不起来。可是,即使被“宰”,至少你的脸是白玉无瑕的。依据Grammarist网址记载,那个常用习语源于北欧海盗的一种无情手段,假设有人拒绝交税,就将此人的鼻头从鼻头到眉间划开。

get a part , part在那边指的是a role in a dramatic performance

万一有人read you the riot act 你的麻烦远超你想像

据此get a part获得,分到多少个角色

After your parents "read you the riot act" for breaking curfew, you might have been facing a few weeks in your room without a television. But in 18th Century England, being read the Riot Act meant you could be facing time behind bars.

造句:I don't want to be kicked out of my favorite play so I work hard when we try out. Finally I get my part in it. 

固然您的父母因为你深夜不归而read you the riot act(责罚你),你可能将面对几周的羁押,还不可能看TV。但是在18世纪的苏格兰,being read the Riot Act(宣读《暴动法案》)意味着你只怕要进大牢。


The Riot Act was implemented in 1715 and stated that the British government could consider any group of 12 or more people a threat to public safety and be ordered to break up, according to Atlas Obscura. Anyone refusing to disperse could be arrested or forcibly removed from the premises.

#句子篇

据Atlas Obscura网站记载,1715年实践的《暴动法案》建议,United Kingdom政党将会把别的十二位以上的公司视为对公共安全的恐吓,并强令其解散。任何拒绝解散的人将被逮捕或粗野驱逐。

1. Well, like Mom always says, be careful what you wish for. I got picked to be a Tree, but I don't know is that's such a good thing. The Tree costumes don't actually have arm holes, so I guess that rules out any apple-throwing.

Letting the cat out of the bag或者是虎视眈眈勾当

分析:like Mom always says那样的句式平时出现在句中做插入成分,那样能够起到切分句子,使之进一步灵敏的效果。比方“The friendship, like a saying goes, is like a cup of tea between gentlemen.” 莫逆之交淡如水。

Today, "letting the cat out of the bag" is used to mean spilling someone's secret. But one of the supposed origins of the phrase was rooted in deceit.

rule out: to stop considering something as a possibility

在当代,letting the cat out of the bag指的是走漏某个人的地下。但该短语的本意和棍骗有关。

造句:If you don't work hard, like my mom always says, you will rule out being a great person.

Supposedly in Medieval times, farmers would go to markets to purchase pigs. Most of the time, their bag would contain the animal they paid for. But if they bought from a shady dealer, they would open their bag to find an unpleasant surprise - their pricey pig had been swapped for a much less expensive cat.

2. I have no idea what a "soprano" is, but from the way some of the girls were giggling, I knew it wasn't a good thing.

据他们说,在中古时代,农民会到集市去买猪。大比较多时候,这么些老乡付账后就能得到装在麻袋里的猪。但假设她们是从不良商贩这里买的,农民开采麻袋后会惊愕地觉察高价买来的猪居然被替换来不值钱的猫。

somebody has/have no idea (about) something 对……一无所知

But as Mental Floss notes, there are quite a few holes with this theory.

soprano: (女)高音歌星,高音的。

唯独,Mental Floss网址提议,这一说法漏洞非常多。

but from the way some of the girls were giggling, I knew it wasn't a good thing.

Baker's dozen核准面包师的高节清风

那句句式相比较值得借鉴。先以介词短语(状语)开始,点明方式(条件,状态等),然后跟出主句。在创作中平常借鉴来选择差异的句式,制止再一次。

You may be thankful to count on that 13th roll in your baker's dozen, but you can think a rather sinister rule for its creation.

giggle:吃吃地笑,咯咯地笑

从面包师这里买了一打面包,结果一数有十三个,你或然还挺多谢的,可是baker's dozen的根源却和一条冷酷的规定有关。

除此之外,大家也可以积存一些其余代表“种种笑”的单词

It all traces back to a 13th-century British rule called the Assize of Bread and Ale. The rule stated that if bakers were caught selling smaller or low-quality bread to customers, they could have their hands chopped off.

smile 微笑/laugh (at) 嘲谑/beam欢天喜地/snicker窃笑/mock嘲弄、戏讽/burble偷笑、窃笑/simper傻笑

那要追溯到13世纪英国一项名字为《面包和麦酒法令》的准则。那条法律规定,假如面包师被发觉卖给花费者不足量或恶性的面包,那一个面包师的双臂就能够被剁掉。

造句:I have no idea why she mocked me. But from what I have learnt from experience, maybe she fell in love with me.

That's why it was just easier to throw a 13th piece into the pile — thus creating the baker's dozen.


所今后一打面包里多放叁个就更保证部分,于是,面包师的一打(baker's dozen)就成了10个。

#作文篇

Meeting a deadline曾经真的是“死线”

    Mom announced that we would have a family committee tonight. From my life experience, I was sure that my brother has messed something up. Several minutes before dinner, he came to me as if he had a bone to pick up with me. I confessed that I threw his paintings out by mistake. However, man, I have apologized to him for nearly a thousand times. But things ran opposite from what I thought. He told me that he flunked his math exam, but he did pay the girl, who damaged his paper, back by biting her. He thought my folks would take his side, but mom announced that he was grounded from playing video games for 3 weeks as the punishment. Knowing he was no match for mom on debating, he just swallowed the result. 

When you get that big report to your boss on time, "meeting a deadline" is a good thing. But the phrase was coined during the American Civil War and had some deadly consequences.

倘若您按期将重大报告提交领导,meeting a deadline正是好事。但以此短语是在美利哥内斗期间被发明的,当时然而会招来致命的结果。

The deadline was apparently a line inside of the area where Federal prisoners of war were kept. If a prisoner attempted to cross the line, they would be shot, according to Bloomsbury International.

布鲁姆斯伯里国际德语高校称,很显著,deadline是阿拉伯联合共合国酋监狱中战犯关押区内的一条线。倘若有犯人试图通过这条线,他们就会被枪毙。

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