9159com金沙网站 > 教育资讯 > 成绩不好原来是选错了座位,同等学力考研英语

原标题:成绩不好原来是选错了座位,同等学力考研英语

浏览次数:93 时间:2019-07-06

图片 1

原标题:教室哪个位置最容易出学霸?座位与成绩真的有关吗?

  Passage 1

Why massive open online courses (still) matter

2th Februrary  2017        Theresa   ChinereYoyo

Choice of seating in the lecture hall can affect a college student’s performance, a study suggests.

走进教室上课时,你一般会选择哪里的座位呢?前排、后排,还是中间?

  Proper arrangement of classroom space is important to encouraging interaction.Most of us have noticed how important physical setting is to efficiency and comfort in our work.Today's corporation hire human engineering specialists and spend a considerable amount of time and money to make sure that the physical environments of buildings are fit to the activities of their inhabitants.

图片 2

                                                                 Collabrative Learning

-

图片 3

图片 4

图片 5

图片 6

图片 7

图片 8

图片 9

图片 10

Many of these difficulties require skillful management by the teacher. If a students wants to work alone, let them from time to time. Meet your students half way and group them appropriately according to level and skills. Yes, working together may take longer, but I’m hoping to show that we can achieve more together than alone, so it’s time well spent. We’re going to look briefly at large classrooms later, but as to whether students learn from other students’ errors, I don’t believe they do. According to Ellis, ‘There is no convincing evidence that learners’ errors derive from the language they are exposed to’ (Ellis, R (1997) Second Language Acquisition Oxford: Oxford University Press, p45. Research does not support this fear.

图片 11

图片 12

图片 13

Focus is on input, which may be something we read or hear. If we ‘notice’ it, pay attention to it by ‘negotiating for meaning’; for example, by asking clarification questions in a process of interaction, then we can process that knowledge as ‘intake’. This process facilitates acquisition.

图片 14

图片 15

图片 16

Russian developmental psychologist, researcher, theorist of child development

Lantolf applied Vygotsky’s theories to SLA

图片 17

Vygotsky’s definition (Lantolf)  That the zone of proximal development is the difference …

That means the ZPD is created through interaction with experts, such as parents or teachers.

图片 18

图片 19

图片 20

Projects: group presentations, blogs, class newspaper, surveys

Discussions: debates, asking and answering questions, problem-solving

Collaborative writing: dictogloss, blogs, class writing projects, reports on surveys

Grammar: verbalising rules/talking about language, asking questions

Integrated skills: dictogloss, running dictation

Assessment: peer assessment, error correction

图片 21

图片 22

图片 23

图片 24

图片 25

图片 26

图片 27

图片 28

图片 29

研究显示,教室座位的选择可能会影响大学生的学业成绩。

最新研究显示,你在教室所选择的座位或许预示着你的考试成绩。

  Similarly, college classroom space should be designed to encourage the activity of critical thinking.We are already in the twenty-first century,but step into almost any college classroom and you step back in time at least a hundred years.Desks are normally in straight rows, so students can clearly see the teacher but not all their classmates.This assumption behind such an arrangement is obvious:Everything of importance comes from the teacher.

TED简介:2013 |2013年是MOOCs(大规模网络公开课)泛滥的一年。随着最初的失望而来的是巨大的数字和满腔的信心。但是edX网站的负责人阿加瓦尔指出这样的事实,作为一种广泛分享的高端学习方式,作为传统教室的一种补充教学方法(也许不是取代),MOOCs仍然关系重大。阿加瓦尔分享了混合式学习的观点,教师可以利用混合式学习来为21世纪的学生创造理想的学习体验。

Reference Material

Lectures are a staple of higher education, and understanding how students interact and learn within the lecture theatre environment is central to successful learning.

为了有个好成绩,选座也要谨慎啊!

  With a little imagination and effort,unless desks are fixed to the floor,the teacher can correct this situation and create space that encourages interchange among students.In small or standardized classes,chairs,desks,and tables can be arranged in a variety of ways:circles,U-shapes,or semicircles.The primary goal should be for everyone to be able to see everyone else.Larger classes,particular those held in lecture halls,unfortunately,allow much less flexibility.

演讲者:Anant Agarwal阿南特·阿加瓦尔

1     Collaborative learning

Collaborative learning is a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together.[1] Unlike individual learning, people engaged in collaborative learning capitalize on one another's resources and skills (asking one another for information, evaluating one another's ideas, monitoring one another's work, etc.).[2][3] More specifically, collaborative learning is based on the model that knowledge can be created within a population where members actively interact by sharing experiences and take on asymmetry roles.[4] Put differently, collaborative learning refers to methodologies and environments in which learners engage in a common task where each individual depends on and is accountable to each other. These include both face-to-face conversations[5] and computer discussions (online forums, chat rooms, etc.).[6] Methods for examining collaborative learning processes include conversation analysis and statistical discourse analysis.[7]

Thus, collaborative learning is commonly illustrated when groups of students work together to search for understanding, meaning, or solutions or to create an artifact or product of their learning. Further, collaborative learning redefines traditional student-teacher relationship in the classroom which results in controversy over whether this paradigm is more beneficial than harmful.[8][9] Collaborative learning activities can include collaborative writing, group projects, joint problem solving, debates, study teams, and other activities. The approach is closely related to cooperative learning.

Contents  [hide]

1

Theoretical background

2

Differences from cooperative learning

3

Classroom

4

Workplace

5

Technology

6

Cultural variations

6.1

Examples from Indigenous communities in the Americas

6.2

Examples from Around the World

6.2.1

Germany

6.2.2

Ghana

6.2.3

Abu Dhabi

6.2.4

China

6.2.5

Japan

7

Examples

8

See also

9

References

Theoretical background[edit]

Collaborative learning is rooted in Lev Vygotsky's concept of learning called zone of proximal development. Typically there are tasks learners can accomplish and tasks learners cannot accomplish. Between these two areas is the zone of proximal development, which is a category of things that a learner can learn but with the help of guidance. The zone of proximal development gives guidance as to what set of skills a learner has that are in the process of maturation. In Vygotsky's definition of zone of proximal development, he highlighted the importance of learning through communication and interactions with others rather than just through independent work.[10] This has made way for the ideas of group learning, one of which being collaborative learning.

Collaborative learning is very important in achieving critical thinking. According to Gokhale (1995), individuals are able to achieve higher levels of learning and retain more information when they work in a group rather than individually, this applies to both the facilitators of knowledge, the instructors, and the receivers of knowledge, the students.[11] For example, Indigenous communities of the Americas illustrate that collaborative learning occurs because individual participation in learning occurs on a horizontal plane where children and adults are equal.[12]

Differences from cooperative learning[edit]

There has been a split regarding to the differences between collaborative and cooperative learning. Some believe that collaborative learning is similar, yet distinct from cooperative learning. While both models use a division of labor, collaborative learning requires the mutual engagement of all participants and a coordinated effort to solve the problem whereas cooperative learning requires individuals to take responsibility for a specific section and then coordinate their respective parts together.[13] Another proposed differentiation is that cooperative learning is typically used for children because it is used to understand the foundations of knowledge while collaborative learning applies to college and university students because it is used to teach non-foundations of learning. Another believed difference is that cooperative learning is a philosophy of interaction where collaborative learning is a structure of interaction.[14]

However, many psychologists have defined cooperative learning and collaborative learning similarly. Both are group learning mechanisms for learners to obtain a set of skills or knowledge. Some notable psychologists that use this definition for both collaborative and cooperative learning are Johnson & Johnson, Slavin, Cooper and more.

Classroom[edit]

Often, collaborative learning is used as an umbrella term for a variety of approaches in education that involve joint intellectual effort by students or students and teachers by engaging individuals in interdependent learning activities.[15] Many have found this to be beneficial in helping students learn effectively and efficiently than if the students were to learn independently. Some positive results from collaborative learning activities are students are able to learn more material by engaging with one another and making sure everyone understands, students retain more information from thoughtful discussion, and students have a more positive attitude about learning and each other by working together.[16]

Encouraging collaborative learning may also help improve the learning environment in higher education as well. Kenneth Bruffee performed a theoretical analysis on the state of higher education in America. Bruffee aimed to redefine collaborative learning in academia. Simply including more interdependent activities will help the students become more engaged and thoughtful learners, but teaching them that obtaining knowledge is a communal activity itself.[17]

When compared to more traditional methods where students non-interactively receive information from a teacher, cooperative, problem-based learning demonstrated improvement of student engagement and retention of classroom material.[18] A meta-analysis comparing small-group work to individual work in K-12 and college classrooms also found that students working in small groups achieved significantly more than students working individually, and optimal groups for learning tended to be three- to four-member teams with lower-ability students working best in mixed groups and medium-ability students doing best in homogeneous groups. For higher-ability students, group ability levels made no difference.[19] In more than 40 studies of elementary, middle, and high school English classrooms, discussion-based practices improved comprehension of the text and critical-thinking skills for students across ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds.[20] Even discussions lasting as briefly as ten minutes with three participants improved perceived understanding of key story events and characters.[21]

Workplace[edit]

The popularity of collaborative learning in the workplace[22] has increased over the last decade. With the emergence of many new collaborative tools, as well as the cost benefit of being able to reinforce learning in workers and in trainees during collaborative training, many work environments are now looking toward methods that involve collaborating with older employees and giving trainees ore of a hands-on approach. Most companies are transitioning from traditional training programs that include instructor-led training sessions or online guided tutorials. Collaborative learning is extremely helpful because it uses past experiences from prior employees to help new trainees get over different challenges.

There are many facets to collaboration in the workplace. It is critical to helping worker's share information with each other and creating strategic planning documents that require multiple inputs. It also allows for forms of vertical integration to find effective ways to synchronize business operations with vendors without being forced to acquire additional businesses.[23]

Many businesses still work on the traditional instructor and trainee model and as they transition from one model to another there are many issues that still need to be debugged in the conversation process:

Need to understand actual interests and concerns regarding collaborating processes, activities and tools

Reigning leaders and managers must better understand the collaborative tools and processes that can boost productivity

Become better equipped to design, implement and evaluate collaborative learning environment

Web technologies have been accelerating learner-centered personalized learning environments. This helps knowledge be constructed and shared, instead of just passed down by authorities and passively consumed or ignored. Technologies such as discussion threads, email or electronic bulletin boards by sharing personal knowledge and ideas do not let others refine individual ideas so we need more collaborative tools. Now these tools on Web 2.0 have been able to enhance collaborative learning like no other because it allows individuals to work together to generate, discuss and evaluate evolving ideas. These tools allow for them to find people that are like minded and collaborate with them effortlessly.

According to a collaborative learning study conducted by Lee & Bonk (2014), there are still many issues that are still being resolved when dealing with collaborative learning in a workplace. The goal was to examine corporate personnel, including learning managers and instructors, plus the tools that they use for collaboration. The researchers conducted an online survey to see what aspects of collaborative learning should be investigated, followed by an open discussion forum with 30 corporate personnel. The results showed that collaboration is becoming very necessary in workplaces and tools such as wikis are very commonly used. There is implication for a lot of future work, in order to have collaborative learning be highly effective in the workplace. Some of the unsolved problems they identified:

Cultural diversity, and accordingly a lack of awareness of cultural norms

Geographical distance and time zone differences

Member isolation in virtual teams

Generation gaps and age differences in the acceptance of collaboration tools

Lack of technology support for learners

Lack of learners' awareness about effective collaboration processes and strategies

Lack of learners' technological skills and knowledge about collaboration tools [22]

It is crucial to consider the interactive processes among people, but the most critical point is the construction of new knowledge brought about through joint work.

Technology[edit]

Technology has become an important factor in collaborative learning. Over the past ten years, the Internet has allowed for a shared space for groups to communicate. Virtual environments have been critical to allowing people to communicate long-distances but still feel like they are part of the group. Research has been conducted on how technology has helped increase the potential of collaborative learning.One study in particular conducted by Elizabeth Stacey looked at how technology affected the communication of postgraduate students studying a Master of Business Administration (MBA) using computer-mediated communication (CMC). Many of these students were able to still remotely learn even when they were not present on their university campus. The results of the study helped build an online learning environment model but since this research was conducted the Internet has grown extensively and thus new software is changing these means of communication.[24]

There has been a development of new technology that support collaborative learning in higher education and the workplace. These tools allow for a strong more power and engaging learning environment. Chickering identified seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education developed by Chickering.[25] Two of these principles are especially important in developing technology for collaboration.

"Good practice develops reciprocity and cooperation among students,"

Good practice uses active learning techniques.[25]

Some examples of how technology is being increasingly integrated with technology are as follows:

Collaborative networked learning – According to Findley (1987) "Collaborative Networked Learning (CNL) is that learning which occurs via electronic dialogue between self-directed co-learners and learners and experts. Learners share a common purpose, depend upon each other and are accountable to each other for their success. CNL occurs in interactive groups in which participants actively communicate and negotiate learning with one another within a contextual framework which may be facilitated by an online coach, mentor or group leader.

Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) is a relatively new educational paradigm within collaborative learning which uses technology in a learning environment to help mediate and support group interactions in a collaborative learning context.[26][27] CSCL systems use technology to control and monitor interactions, to regulate tasks, rules, and roles, and to mediate the acquisition of new knowledge.

Collaborative Learning Using Wikipedia: Wikipedia is an example of how collaborative learning tools have been extremely beneficial in both the classroom and workplace setting. They are able to change based on how groups think and are able to form into a coherent idea based on the needs of the Wikipedia user.

Collaborative learning in virtual worlds Virtual words by their nature provide an excellent opportunity for collaborative learning. At first learning in virtual worlds was restricted to classroom meetings and lectures, similar to their counterparts in real life. Now collaborative learning is evolving as companies starting to take advantage of unique features offered by virtual world spaces - such as ability to record and map the flow of ideas,[17] use 3D models and virtual worlds mind mapping tools.

Cultural variations[edit]

There also exists cultural variations in ways of collaborative learning. Research in this area has mainly focused on children in indigenous Mayan communities of the Americas or in San Pedro, Guatemala and European American middle-class communities.

Generally, researchers have found that children in indigenous Mayan communities such as San Pedro typically learn through keenly observing and actively contributing to the mature activities of their community.[28] This type of learning is characterized by the learner's collaborative participation through multi-modal communication verbal and non-verbal and observations.[28] They are highly engaged within their community through focused observation.[29] Mayan parents believe that children learn best by observing and so an attentive child is seen as one who is trying to learn.[29] It has also been found that these children are extremely competent and independent in self-maintenance at an early age and tend to receive little pressure from their parents.[29]

Research has found that even when Indigenous Mayan children are in a classroom setting, the cultural orientation of indigenous learners shows that observation is a preferred strategy of learning.[30] Thus children and adults in a classroom setting adopt cultural practice and organize learning collaboratively.[30] This is in contrast to the European-American classroom model, which allocates control to teachers/adults allowing them to control classroom activities.[31]

Within the European American middle-class communities, children typically do not learn through collaborative learning methods. In the classroom, these children generally learn by engaging in initiation-reply-evaluation sequences.[28] This sequence starts with the teacher initiating an exchange, usually by asking a question. The student then replies, with the teacher evaluating the student's answer.[32] This way of learning fits with European-American middle-class cultural goals of autonomy and independence that are dominant in parenting styles within European-American middle-class culture.[28]

Examples from Indigenous communities in the Americas[edit]

Although learning happens in a variety of ways in indigenous communities, collaborative learning is one of the main methods used in indigenous learning styles instead of using European-American approaches to learning. These methods include learning in a horizontal plane where children and adults share contribution in ideas and activities.

For example, Mayan people of San Pedro use collaboration in order to build upon one another's ideas and activities. Mayan mothers do not act as teachers when completing a task with their children, but instead collaborate with children through play and other activities.[33] People of this Mayan community use the shared endeavors method more than European-Americans who tend to use the transmit-and-test model more often.[34] The shared endeavors model is when people go off of others ideas[clarification needed] and learn from them, while the transmit-and-test model is what is used in most American schools when a teacher gives students information and then tests the students on the information.[34] The shared endeavors model is a form of collaborative learning because everyone learns from one another and are able to hear and share others' ideas.

In Nocutzepo, Mexico, indigenous heritage families form collective units where it is generally agreed that children and youth engage in adult cooperative household or community economic practices such as food preparation, child care, participating in markets, agriculture, animal herding, and construction to name a few.[35] During planting and harvesting season, entire families are out in the fields together where children usually pitch into the activity with smaller tasks alongside adults; however, are always observant when it comes to activities done by adults, such as driving a tractor or handling an axe.[35] These children learn through imitation, observation, listening, pitching in, and doing activities in a social and cultural context.[34] When children begin to participate in the daily family/community activities, they form a sense of belonging, especially when they collaborate with adults establishing a more mature integration with their family and community.

Indigenous people of the Americas utilize collaborative learning through their emphasis on role sharing and responsibility sharing within their communities. The Mayan community of San Pedro, Guatemala utilizes flexible leadership that allows children to have an active role in their learning.[36] Children and adults work as cohesive groups when tackling new projects.[36] Collaborative learning is prevalent in Indigenous communities due to the integration of children in the daily lives of the adults.[37] Age is not a determining factor in whether or not individuals are incorporated into collaborative efforts and learning that occurs in indigenous communities.

Participation of learner is a key component to collaborative learning as it functions as the method by which the learning process occurs. Thus collaborative learning occurs when children and adults in communities switch between "knowledge performers" and "observing helpers".[38] For example, when parents in an indigenous Mazahua community where assigned the task of organizing children to build a roof over a market stand in such a way that they would learn to do it themselves, parents and children both collaborated on a horizontal structure. Switching between knowledge performer and observing helper, adults and children completed the task peacefully, without assigned roles of educator/student and illustrated that children still took initiative even when adults were still performing.[38]

Adults and children in indigenous communities of the Americas participate in a horizontal organizational structure; therefore when they work together with one another they are reciprocals of each other.[39] This horizontal structure allows for flexible leadership, which is one of the key aspects of collaborative learning. The indigenous communities of the Americas are unique in their collaborative learning because they do not discriminate upon age, instead Indigenous communities of the Americas encourage active participation and flexible leadership roles, regardless of age. Children and adults regularly interchange their roles within their community. In addition, Indigenous communities consider observation to be a part of the collaborative learning process.[38]

Collaborative learning can also be incorporated into university settings. For example, the Intercultural Maya University of Quintana Roo, Mexico, has a system that incorporates elders, such as grandparents to act as tutors and as a resource for students to discuss information and knowledge regarding their own language and culture. The elders give their recommendation at the end of a semester in the decision of passing or failing a student, based on his/her behavior in the community and how well he/she is learning Maya. The system is called IKNAL, a maya word that implies companionship in the learning and doing process which involves several members of the community.[40]

Examples from Around the World[edit]

Collaborative learning varies across the world. The traditional model for learning is instructor based but that model is quickly changing on a global standpoint as countries fight to be at the top of the economy. A country's history, culture, religious beliefs and politics are all aspects of their national identity and these characteristics influence on citizen's view of collaboration in both a classroom and workplace setting.[41]

Germany[edit]

The culture in Germany values formality, neatness, and traditional style of education so you will most likely find individualized approach to teaching where the teacher will lecture a group of students. They also value a strong work ethic making learning very competitive so they do not usually collaborate naturally.[citation needed]

Ghana[edit]

The same teacher student method that is used in many countries is the norm for Ghana as well. They are hierarchical society so people are given respect based on age, wisdom, experience, wealth or position. So they expect people that are leaders to make the decision for the entire group. Students do not feel free to interact with instructors so collaboration is very difficult. Younger children are trained to refrain from challenging authorities so children always expect to be taught. (Dr. Stephen Asunka, director of instructional Technology & Media at Regent University)[citation needed]

Abu Dhabi[edit]

Culture is very much mixed with religion in Abu Dhabi. Many of the rules that are followed are based on Islam. The rules regarding modesty and strong gender segregation. This does not help collaboration between genders. An example is having Emirati employees in a room and only women were allowed to attend. Much more structured than anywhere else.[citation needed]

China[edit]

They place a high value on education and hard work. There is always a competitive drive to succeed. It is very similar to the United States but it is considered impolite to question a teacher. We need to break the silence mindset, once the interaction happens it will be incredibly valuable.[citation needed]

Japan[edit]

While the empirical research in Japan is still relatively sparse, many language educators have taken advantage of Japan's natural collectivism and experimented with collaborative learning programs[42][43][44][45] More recently, technological advancements and their high adoption rate among students in Japan [46] have made computer supported collaborative learning accessible.[47][48][49] Japanese student's value for friendship and their natural inclination towards reciprocity seems to support collaborative learning in Japan.[50]

Examples[edit]

Collaborative learning development Enables developers of learning systems to work as a network. Specifically relevant to e-learning where developers can share and build knowledge into courses in a collaborative environment. Knowledge of a single subject can be pulled together from remote locations using software systems.[citation needed]

Collaborative learning in thesis circles in higher education is another example of people learning together. In a thesis circle, a number of students work together with at least one professor or lecturer, to collaboratively coach and supervise individual work on final (e.g. undergraduate or MSc) projects. Students switch frequently between their role as co-supervisor of other students and their own thesis work (incl. receiving feedback from other students).[citation needed]

Collaborative learning in a composition classroom can unite students when assigned open-tasks. Kenneth Bruffee introduced the learning method, Classroom Consensus Group, in which the instructor allocates groups of three to five (three being ideal) students and assigns a problem to be solved or question to be answered. There are two directions the nonfoundational task can be presented: as an indistinct, no right answer that generates discussion or propose an answer and request questions and a process of how the answer came to be. Once the task is assigned, the instructor backs off in order to resist the urge to intervene in students' conversation. The goal is to remove focus of the instructor's authority. The instructor must keep time to ensure the students are centered on analogizing, generalizing, and bridging their comprehension with others. Following group discussion, the instructor is to evaluate, not judge, the students' work. Ideas should be presented to the entire class thus allowing the small groups to come together as a whole. It is then that the answers can be compared, gaps can be filled, and authority is not on one individual.[51]

Collaborative scripts structure collaborative learning by creating roles and mediating interactions while allowing for flexibility in dialogue and activities.[52][53] Collaborative scripts are used in nearly all cases of collaborative learning some of which are more suited for face-to-face collaborative learning—usually, more flexible—and others for computer-supported collaborative learning—typically, more constraining.[52][53] Additionally, there are two broad types of scripts: macro-scripts and micro-scripts. Macro-scripts aim at creating situations within which desired interactions will occur. Micro-scripts emphasize activities of individual learners.[52]

See also[edit]

Wikiversity has learning resources about Collaborative learning

Active learning

Cooperative learning

Collaborative information seeking

Educational psychology

Intergenerational equity

Learning by teaching (LdL)

Learning circle

Learning community

Teaching for social justice

Youth/adult partnerships

Numbers heads together

References[edit]

^ Dillenbourg, P. (1999). Collaborative Learning: Cognitive and Computational Approaches. Advances in Learning and Instruction Series. New York, NY: Elsevier Science, Inc.

^ Chiu, M. M. (2000). Group problem solving processes: Social interactions and individual actions. for the Theory of Social Behavior, 30, 1, 27-50.600-631.

^ Chiu, M. M. (2008).Flowing toward correct contributions during groups' mathematics problem solving: A statistical discourse analysis. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 17 (3), 415 - 463.

^ Mitnik, R., Recabarren, M., Nussbaum, M., & Soto, A. (2009). Collaborative Robotic Instruction: A Graph Teaching Experience. Computers & Education, 53(2), 330-342.

^ Chiu, M. M. (2008). Effects of argumentation on group micro-creativity. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33, 383 – 402.

^ Chen, G., & Chiu, M. M. (2008). Online discussion processes. Computers and Education, 50, 678 – 692.

^ Chiu, M. M., & Khoo, L. (2005). A new method for analyzing sequential processes: Dynamic multi-level analysis. Small Group Research, 36, 600-631.

^ Chiu, M. M. (2004). Adapting teacher interventions to student needs during cooperative learning. American Educational Research Journal, 41, 365-399.

^ Harding-Smith, T. (1993). Learning together: An introduction to collaborative learning. New York, NY: HarperCollins College Publishers.

^ Vygotsky, Lev. (1997). "Interaction between Learning and Development". W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.

^ Gokhale, A.A. (1995). "Collaborative learning enhances critical thinking". Journal of Technology Education.

^ Paradise, R. (1985). Un análisis psicosocial de la motivación y participación emocional en un caso de aprendizaje individual. Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Educativos, XV, 1, 83-93.

^ Dillenbourgh, P., Baker, M., Blaye, A. & O'Malley, C. (1995). The evolution of research on Collaborative Learning. Retrieved February 19, 2008, from CSCL-A brief overview

^ Kyndt, E., Raes, E., Lismont, B., Timmers, F., Cascallar, E., Dochy, F. (2013). A meta-analysis of the effects of face-to-face cooperative learning. Do recent studies falsify or verify earlier findings? Educational Research Review.

^ Smith, B. L., & MacGregor, J. T. (1992). "What Is Collaborative Learning?". National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning, and Assessment at Pennsylvania State University

^ "Wisconsin's Guiding Principles for Teaching and Learning".

^

to:

a b Kelly, J. (2002). "Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge by Kenneth Bruffee: A Critical Study" Journal of the National Collegiate Honors Council --Online Archive.

^ Prince, M. (2004)."Does Active Learning Work? A Review of Research". J. Engr. Education, 93(3), 223-231.

^ Lou, Y., Others. (1996)."Within-Class Grouping: A eta-Analysis". Review of Educational Research. 66(4), 423-58.

^ Alexander, J. (2009)"Examining the Effects of classroom Discussion on Students' Comprehension of Text: A Meta-Analysis". Journal of Educational Psychology. 101(3). 760-764.

^ Fall, R., Webb, N., Chudowsky, N. (1997)."Group Discussion and Large-Scale Language Arts Assessment: Effects on Students' Comprehension"

^

to:

a b Lee, Hyunkyung (2014). "Collaborative Learning in the Workplace: Practice Issues and Concerns". International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning. doi:10.3991/ijac.v7i2.3850.

^ Singh, P.J. (2009). "The nature and effectiveness of collaboration between firms, their customers and suppliers: a supply chain perspective.". Supply Chain Management: An international Journal. doi:10.1108/13598540910954539.

^ Stacy, Elizabeth (1999). "Collaborative Learning in an Online Environment". Journal of Distance Education.

^

to:

a b Chickering & Ehrmann (1996). "Implementing the Seven Principles: Technology as Lever". AAHE Bulletin.

^ Mitnik, R.; Recabbaren, M.; Nussubaum, M.; Soto, A. (2009). "Collaborative Robotic Instruction: A Graph Teaching Experience". Computers & Education.

^ Chen, G.; Chiu, M.M. (2008). "Online discussion processes". Computers and Education.

^

to:

a b c d Roberts, A.L. (2009). Children's reflections on cultural differences in ways of working together. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of California, Santa Cruz.

^

to:

a b c Gaskins, S. (2000). Children's daily activities in a mayan village: a culturally grounded description. Cross-Cultural Research, 34(4), 375-389.

^

to:

a b Paradise, R. (1991). El conocimiento cultural en el aula: Niños indígenas y su orientación hacia la observación. Infancia y Aprendizaje, 55, 73-85.

^ Philips, S. U. (1983). The invisible culture: Communication in the classroom and community on the warm springs reservation. Longman Publishing Group.

^ Cole, M. (1990). Cognitive development and formal schooling: The evidence from cross-cultural research. In L.C. Moll (Ed), Vygotsky and education: Instructional implications and applications of sociohistorical psychology. (89-110). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

^ Rogoff, B., Toma, C. (2009). "Shared thinking: Community and institutional variations. Discourse Processes". DOI: 10.1080/01638539209545000.

^

to:

a b c Urrieta Jr., L. (2013). Familia and comunidad-based saberes: Learning in an indigenous heritage community. Antrhopology & Education Quarterly, 44(3), 320-335. Doi:10.1111/aeq.12028

^

to:

a b Urrieta Jr., L. (2013). Familia and comunidad-based saberes: Learning in an indigenous heritage community. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 44(3), 320-335.

^

to:

a b Chavajay, P. (2008). Organizational patterns in problem solving among Mayan fathers and children. Developmental Psychology, 44(3), 882-888.

^ Rogoff, B., Correa-Chavez, M., & Silva, K. G. (2011). Cultural variation in children's attention and learning. In M.A. Gernsbaber, R. W. Pew, L. M. Hough & J. R. Pomerantz (Eds.), Psychology and the real world: Essays illustrating fundamental contributions to society (pp. 154-163). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.

^

to:

a b c Paradise, R., & De Haan, M. (2009). Responsibility and reciprocity: social organization of Mazahua learning practices. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 40, 2, 187-204.

^ Rogoff, B., Paradise, R., Arauz, R. M., Correa-Chavez, M., & Angelillo, C. (2003). Firsthand learning through intent participation. Annual Review of Psychology, 54(1), 175-203.

^ Rosado-May, F. J. (2012). Una perspectiva intercultural al concepto de tutoría académica. El caso de la Universidad Intercultural Maya de Quintana Roo. In I. Deance y V. Vásquez Valdés. (Eds.), Aulas diversas: Experiencias sobre educación intercultural en América. (pp. 65—90). ABYA/YALA Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, Deance-Vásquez y Universidad Intercultural Maya de Quintana Roo. ISBN 978-9942-09-032-4.

^ Chylinski, Manya (2011). "Collaborative Learning Around the World". Faculty Matters- Phoenix University.

^ Murphey, T. (2003). NNS primary school teachers learning English with their students. TESOL Matters, 13(4), 1-6.

^ Murphey, T., Asaoka, C., & Sekiguchi, M. (2004). Primary teachers co-learning English with their students. The Language Teacher, 28 (2). Retrieved from

^ Collins, W., & Hunt, J. (2011). Improved student motivation and confidence through self-access listening, video forums and talking journals. The JALT CALL Journal, 7(3), 319-333. Retrieved from

^ Ashwell, T., Miyahara, M., Paydon, S. & Stewart, A. (Eds.) (2014). Collaborative Learning in Learner Development. JALT Learner Development SIG. Reterived from

^ Cote, T., Milliner, B., Flowers, S., & Ferreira, D. (2014). What's going on at the MALL. PeerSpectives Online, 12. Retrieved from . gl/uBwzp1.

^ Yatani, K., Onuma, M., Sugimoto, M., & Kusunoki, F. (2004). Musex: A system for supporting children's collaborative learning in a museum with PDAs. Systems and Computers in Japan, 35(14), 54-63.

^ Forsythe, E. (2014). Online intercultural collaborations using wikis: An analysis of students' comments and factors affective project success. The JALT CALL Journal, 10 (3), 255–271. Retrieved from

^ Flowers, S. (2014, Aug 14). Student reactions to Google Presentations. Digital Mobile Language Learning.

^ Flowers, S. (2015). Friendship and reciprocity as motivators in CSCL. JALT CALL Journal, 11(3). 191-212. Retrieved from

^ Bruffee, Kenneth (1993). Collaborative Learning. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 28–51.

^

a b c Dillenbourg, P., & Tchounikine, P. (2007). Flexibility in Macro-Scripts for Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 23(1), 1-13.

^

a b Kollar, I., Fischer, F., & Hesse, F. (2006). Collaboration Scripts--A Conceptual Analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 18(2), 159-185.

高等教育的主要授课内容都是在课堂中进行的,理解学生们在阶梯教室的课堂环境中如何互动和学习对取得好的学习效果很关键。

图片 30

  Arrangement of the classroom should also make it easy to divide students into small groups for discussion or problem-solving exercises.Small classes with movable desks and tables present no problem.Even in large lecture halls,it is possible for students to turn around and form group of four to six.Breaking a class into small groups provides more opportunities for students to interact with each other,think out loud,and see how other students’ thinking processes operate--all essential elements in developing new modes of critical thinking.

片长:15:19

2  

Researchers from Sheffield Hallam University in the UK examined students’ reasons for choosing particular seats in a lecture hall, and investigated how seating positions correlate with student performance.

Choice of seating in the lecture hall can affect a college student’s performance, a study suggests.

研究显示,在阶梯教室里,学生对于座位的选择可能会影响其学业成绩。

  In courses that regularly use a small group format,students might be asked to stay in the same small groups throughout the course.A colleague of mine allows students to move around during the first two weeks,until they find a group they are comfortable with.He then asks them to stay in the same seat,with the same group,from that time on.This not only creates a comfortable setting for interaction but helps him learn students’ names and faces.

原文地址:为什么大规模网络公开课(仍然)那么重要

Collaborative Learning: Group Work

What is collaborative learning? 

What is the impact of collaborative learning or group work?

What are some examples of collaborative learning activities?

How can you design group work activities?

How can you manage group work?

How can you evaluate group work?

What are some general strategies to keep in mind when incorporating group work?

What is collaborative learning?

Collaborative learning is based on the view that knowledge is a social construct. Collaborative activities are most often based on four principles:

The learner or student is the primary focus of instruction.

Interaction and "doing" are of primary importance

Working in groups is an important mode of learning.

Structured approaches to developing solutions to real-world problems should be incorporated into learning.

Collaborative learning can occur peer-to-peer or in larger groups. Peer learning, or peer instruction, is a type of collaborative learning that involves students working in pairs or small groups to discuss concepts, or find solutions to problems. This often occurs in a class session after students are introduced to course material through readings or videos before class, and/or through instructor lectures. Similar to the idea that two or three heads are better than one, many instructors have found that through peer instruction, students teach each other by addressing misunderstandings and clarifying misconceptions. For more on peer learning, visit The Official Peer Instruction Blog.

Group work or collaborative learning can take a variety of forms, such as quick, active learning activities in class or more involved group projects that span the course of a semester.

What is the impact of collaborative learning or group work?

Research shows that educational experiences that are active, social, contextual, engaging, and student-owned lead to deeper learning. The benefits of collaborative learning include:

Development of higher-level thinking, oral communication, self-management, and leadership skills.

Promotion of student-faculty interaction.

Increase in student retention, self-esteem, and responsibility.

Exposure to and an increase in understanding of diverse perspectives.

成绩不好原来是选错了座位,同等学力考研英语备考资料之阅读理解。Preparation for real life social and employment situations.

What are some examples of collaborative learning or group work activities?

Stump your partner

Students take a minute to create a challenging question based on the lecture content up to that point.

Students pose the question to the person sitting next to them.

To take this activity a step further, ask students to write down their questions and hand them in. These questions can be used to create tests or exams. They can also be reviewed to gauge student understanding.

Think-pair-share/ Write-pair-share

The instructor poses a question that demands analysis, evaluation, or synthesis.

Students take a few minutes to think through an appropriate response.

Students turn to a partner (or small groups) and share their responses. Take this a step further by asking students to find someone who arrived at an answer different from their own and convince their partner to change their mind.

Student responses are shared within larger teams or with the entire class during a follow-up discussion.

Catch-up

Stop at a transition point in your lecture.

Have students turn to a partner or work in small groups to compare notes and ask clarifying questions.

After a few minutes, open the floor to a few questions.

Fishbowl debate

Ask students to sit in groups of three.

Assign roles. For example, the person on left takes one position on a topic for debate, the person on right takes the opposite position, and the person in the middle takes notes and decides which side is the most convincing and provides an argument for his or her choice.

Debrief by calling on a few groups to summarize their discussions.

Case study

Create four to five case studies of similar difficulty.

Have students work in groups of four or five to work through and analyze their case study.

Provide 10-15 minutes (or adequate time to work through the cases).

Walk around and address any questions.

Call on groups randomly and ask that students share their analysis. Continue until each case study has been addressed.

Team-based learning (adapted from L.K. Michaelsen in Davis, 2009. p.215)

Start a course unit by giving students some tasks to complete, such as reading or lab assignments. Consider assigning these to be completed before class.

Check students' comprehension of the material with a quick multiple-choice quiz. Have students submit their answers.

Assign students to groups and have them review their answers with group members to reach consensus. Have each group submit one answered quiz.

Record both the individual student assessment scores and the final group assessment score (both of which are used toward each student's course grade).

Deliver a lecture that specially targets any misconceptions or gaps in knowledge the assessments reveal.

Give groups a challenging assignment, such as solving a problem or applying a theory to a real world situation.

For more information on this strategy at teambasedlearning.org.

Group problem solving

There are many instructional strategies that involve students working together to solve a problem, including inquiry based learning, authentic learning, and discovery learning. While they each have their own unique characteristics, they all fundamentally involve:

Presenting students with a problem.

Providing some structure or guidance toward solving the problem. Note, however, that they are all student-centered activities in which the instructor may have a very minimal role.

Reaching a final outcome or solution.

Problem-Based Learning is a collaborative, student-centered approach to learning in which students learn about a subject by working in groups to solve an open-ended problem.

How can you design group work assignments?

First, think about the course learning outcomes and how group work might address them. Then consider how groups will be organized, how student learning and group processes will be supported, and how students will be evaluated, if at all.

Short in-class activities may take less planning, but it is still important to consider how the process will play out in a classroom situation.

How will you introduce the activity? How much time is required? How will you debrief as a group? For in-class collaborative activities, focus on asking effective questions that engage students in the types of learning you are trying to encourage.

For more involved projects that take place over a longer period of time and for which students will be graded, plan each stage of the group work.

How will groups be formed? Allowing students to form their own groups will likely result in uneven groupings. If possible, arrange groups by skills and/or backgrounds. For example, ask students to rate their comfort/ability level on a number of skills (research, background knowledge of course topics, work experience, etc.) and try to arrange groups that include “experts” in different areas. Another possibility is to do a preliminary assessment; and then based on the results, purposefully create groups that blend abilities.

How will you ensure that students are productive? Set aside time early in the semester to allow for icebreakers and team-building activities. Consider using class time for group work to eliminate students having to coordinate meeting times outside of class. Much of the group work can be done collaboratively online, again, lessening the difficulty of coordination. See more on how to manage groups in the next question.

What technology might assist the group work? If technology use is required (e.g. wikis), you will need to incorporate learning activities around the use of the technology. At the beginning, do a low stakes activity that helps students become familiar with the technology. If other types of technology can facilitate the group work processes, guide students in its use.

What can the students do? Choose assignment topics or tasks that are related to the real world, and can be connected to students’ lives. For example, have students try to analyze and solve a current local or international problem. Have students complete tasks that involve using and developing skills that they will likely use in their future professional lives, such as writing a proposal or collaborating online. Here are some other considerations for creating effective group work activities:

Break a larger assignment into smaller pieces and set multiple deadlines to ensure that students work toward reaching milestones throughout the process rather than pulling it all together at the last minute.

Incorporate peer review at each milestone to encourage self-awareness and to ensure ongoing feedback.

Tie in-class activities and lectures to the group assignment. For example, in class sessions, provide clues that assist students in their group projects.

Be sure to explain how students will be evaluated and use a rubric to communicate these expectations. See more on how to evaluate group work.

How can you manage group work?

Managing shorter in-class collaborative learning activities

This generally involves a 3-step process:

Introduce the task. This can be as simple as instructing students to turn to their neighbor to discuss or debate a topic.

Provide students with enough time to engage with the task. Walk around and address any questions as needed.

Debrief. Call on a few students to share a summary of their conclusions. Address any misconceptions or clarify any confusing points. Open the floor for questions.

This process can be as short at 5 minutes, but can be longer depending on the task at hand.

Managing larger group work projects

Here are some strategies to help ensure productive group dynamics:

Provide opportunities for students to develop rapport and group cohesion through icebreakers, team-building, and reflection exercises.

Give students time to create a group work plan allowing them to plan for deadlines, and divvy up responsibilities.

Have students establish ground rules. Students can create a contract for each member to sign; this contract can include agreed-upon penalties for those who fail to fulfill obligations.

Assign roles to members of each group and change the roles periodically. For example, one student can be the coordinator, another the note-taker, another the summarizer, and another the planner of next steps.

Allow students to rate each other’s quality and quantity of contributions. Use these evaluations when giving individual grades, but do not let it weigh heavily on a students’ final grade. Communicate clearly how peer assessment will influence grades.

Check in with groups intermittently, but encourage students to handle their own issues before coming to you for assistance.

How can you evaluate group work?

Student group work can result in the production of:

wikis

proposals

reports of case studies

in-class or video presentations

posters

Here are some ways to provide feedback on group productivity throughout the process as well as on the group product.

Evaluate students on both their contributions to group processes as well as the final product.

Create a detailed explanation of what your expectations are.

Provide scores for individuals as well as groups.

Use rubrics. Consider asking students for feedback and including some of their ideas to the rubric.

Incorporate peer and self-assessment at various milestones. This is a good way to check in on the assignment progress as well as the group dynamics.

Communicate clearly to students at the beginning how you will calculate their grades.

What are some general strategies to keep in mind when incorporating group work?

Introduce group work early in the semester to set clear student expectations.

Plan for each stage of group work.

Carefully explain to your students how groups will operate and how students will be graded.

Help students develop the skills they need to succeed in doing group activities, such as using team-building exercises or introducing self-reflection techniques.

Establish ground rules for participation and contributions.

Consider using written contracts.

Incorporate self and peer assessments for group members to evaluate their own and others' contributions.

References

Barkely, E.F., Cross, K.P. & Howell Major, C. (2005). Collaborative learning techniques: A handbook for college faculty. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bruffee, K.A. (1998). Collaborative learning: Higher education, interdependence, and the authority of knowledge. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Davis, B.G. (2009). Tools for teaching (2nd ed). (pp. 190-221). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Felder, R.M., Felder, G.N. & Dietz, E.J. (1998). A longitudinal study of engineering student performance and retention. V. Comparisons with traditionally-taught students. Journal of Engineering Education, 87(4), 469-480.

Michaelsen, L.K., Knight, A.B. & Fink, L.D. (Eds.) (2004). Team-based learning: A transformative use of small groups in college teaching. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

英国谢菲尔德哈勒姆大学的研究人员分析了学生们在课堂中选择特定座位的原因,并调查了他们所选择的座位和学业成绩之间的关系。

英国谢菲尔德哈勒姆大学(Sheffield Hallam University)的研究人员分析了学生们在阶梯教室里选择特定座位的原因,并调查了他们所选择的座位和学业成绩之间的关系(how seating positions correlate with student performance)。

  1. According to the passage,proper arrangement of physical environment in a company _______.

为什么大规模网络公开课仍然重要_腾讯视频

“Interaction is a key part of learning and knowing who the students are interacting with can be a great benefit when designing activities,” said David P Smith of Sheffield Hallam University.

Many students preferred being able to sit with their friends, while others were more concerned with either attracting or avoiding the lecturer’s attention.

许多学生喜欢和朋友坐在一起,而另外一些学生则希望引起或避开授课老师的注意。

  A. can improve working conditions

中英文对照翻译

英国谢菲尔德哈勒姆大学的戴维·史密斯说:“互动是学习的关键部分,而在设置课堂活动的时候,知道学生在与什么人互动会大有帮助。”

图片 31

  B. leads to an friendly atmosphere

I'd like to reimagine education. The last year has seen the invention of a new four-letter word. It starts with an M. MOOC: massive open online courses. Many organizations are offering these online courses to students all over the world, in the millions, for free. Anybody who has an Internet connection and the will to learn can access these great courses from excellent universities and get a credential at the end of it.

Many students preferred being able to sit with their friends, while others were more concerned with either attracting or avoiding the lecturer’s attention.

在阶梯教室里,学霸都是选能听清老师上课的座位,学渣都是选容易开溜的座位……

  C. can promote working efficiency

我想要重新定义教育。去年出现了一个新的四字单词,以M开头的缩写词MOOC:大规模网络公开课。许多机构陆续提供这些网络课程,免费提供给全世界数以百万计的学生。任何能够连接到因特网的人如果想要学习这些课程,可以访问这些名校名课,并在课程结束时获得专业证书在。

许多学生喜欢和朋友坐在一起,而另外一些学生则希望引起或避开授课老师的注意。

Some students chose seats that allowed them to see and hear clearly, while others picked easily vacatable seats that made them feel less anxious, researchers said.

研究者称,有些学生选择那些能让他们可以清楚地看到和听到老师讲课的座位,有些学生则偏爱能方便开溜的座位,这可以减少他们的焦虑感。

  D. produce an energetic team leader

Now, in this discussion today, I'm going to focus on a different aspect of MOOCs. We are taking what we are learning and the technologies we are developing in the large and applying them in the small to create a blended model of education to really reinvent and reimagine what we do in the classroom.

Some students chose seats that allowed them to see and hear clearly, while others picked easily vacatable seats that made them feel less anxious, researchers said.

图片 32

  2. Desks in straight rows in a traditional classroom imply _______.

接下来的讨论中,我会将话题集中在网络公开课的另一面我们大范围的吸收所学的知识,大范围的开发技术却小面积的应用,创造了一种混合的教育模式,真正意义上地重新确立和重新定义教室里的教学内容。

有些学生选择那些能让他们可以清楚地看到和听到老师讲课的座位,而其他学生则偏爱那些让他们觉得不那么焦虑的座位,因为他们可以方便地起身离开教室。

研究还显示,喜欢坐在一起的小伙伴,成绩也差不多,确定不是互相抄答案导致的么……

  A. the importance of facial expressions

Now, our classrooms could use change. So, here's a classroom at this little three-letter institute in the Northeast of America, MIT. And this was a classroom about 50 or 60 years ago, and this is a classroom today. What's changed? The seats are in color. Whoop-de-do. Education really hasn't changed in the past 500 years. The last big innovation in education was the printing press and the textbooks. Everything else has changed around us. You know, from healthcare to transportation, everything is different, but education hasn't changed.

Friendship groups who sat together tended to achieve similar grades, and students who sat alone at the edges tended to do worse than average.

Friendship groups who sat together tended to achieve similar grades, and students who sat alone at the edges tended to do worse than average.

坐在一起的一群朋友倾向于考相似的成绩。而独自坐在教室角落的学生的成绩往往低于平均水平。

  B. group work is not welcome in class

我们的教室需要改变。这是一间教室其所属的教育机构有三个字母组成,即美国东北部的MIT。这是五六十年代的一间教室,而这是目前使用的教室有什么变化吗?座位有了颜色,呕吼教育模式根本未曾改变过。过去的500年内教育领域里最近的一个大革新,是印刷机和教科书。生活中一切其他的事物都在改变,从医疗业到运输业 一切都有所变化,但是教育领域仍保持原样。

坐在一起的一群朋友倾向于获得相似的成绩。而独自坐在教室角落的学生的成绩往往低于平均水平。

那么,你最喜欢坐在教室的哪个位置呢?

  C. strict rules that must be abided by

It's also been a real issue in terms of access. So what you see here is not a rock concert. And the person you see at the end of the stage is not Madonna. This is a classroom at the Obafemi Awolowo University in Nigeria. Now, we've all heard of distance education, but the students way in the back, 200 feet away from the instructor, I think they are undergoing long-distance education.

Lecturers may be able to use these findings to provide assistance to anxious students, and to support the learning of all students by encouraging interactions between the different groups.

其实座位的挑选不仅能影响你的学业成绩,还能反映出你的个性特征。

  D. the absolute authority of teachers

在是否有机会接受教育上,这也是个切实的问题。你看到的这张图片不是什么摇滚音乐会,讲台中间的那个人,不是麦当娜,这是一间教室,位于尼日利亚的奥巴费米亚沃洛沃大学。我们都听说过远程教育,但是坐在后面的学生离这位讲师有200英尺(61米) 我认为他们正在接受真正意义上的远距离教育。

老师们可以利用这项研究结果帮助焦虑的学生,并通过鼓励不同学生群体之间的互动,来帮助所有学生的学习。

前排

  3. The most important goal of classroom arrangement is to _______.

Now, I really believe that we can transform education, both in quality and scale and access, through technology. For example, at edX, we are trying to transform education through online technologies. Given education has been calcified for 500 years,we really cannot think about reengineering it, micromanaging it.

那么,你最喜欢坐在教室的哪个位置呢?其实座位的挑选不仅能影响你的学业成绩,还能反映出你的个性特征。

图片 33

  A. create more chances of interaction among students

现在,我真的相信我们可以转变教育模式,无论在质量上、规模上还是教育权利上,通过技术手段来转变。比如,在edX网站上我们正试着改变教育领域,通过在线技术。鉴于这500年来,教育已经僵化我们不能对它进行再造和微观管理。

前排

Appraising classroom rows based on academic success, some professors have observed that the front row remains prime sitting position typically held by outgoing scholarly students.

  B. increase more speaking practices among students

We really have to completely reimagine it.It's like going from ox carts to the airplane. Even the infrastructure has to change.Everything has to change.We need to go from lectures on the blackboard to online exercises, online videos. We have to go to interactive virtual laboratories and gamification. We have to go to completely online grading and peer interaction and discussion boards. Everything really has to change.

Appraising classroom rows based on academic success, some professors have observed that the front row remains prime sitting position typically held by outgoing scholarly students. “I notice the more prepared and personable students sit in front rows,” said Dr. Chris Hammons, interim dean of the College of Arts and Humanities and chair of the department of government (London). “Students in the front almost always score higher on exams.”

一些教授基于学业成就对学生在教室中的座位进行评价,他们注意到,开朗活泼且爱学习的学生最爱坐前排。

  C. make it possible for teachers to judge how well students have learned

事实上,我们需要彻底地重新定义就像从乘牛车到坐飞机,即使要改变基础设施,要改变一切我们需要从板书教育转变成在线练习、在线视频。我们要使用互动型虚拟实验室和游戏化模式,我们应当完全在线评分、在线与同伴互动和在线讨论。的确,一切都要改变。

一些教授基于学业成就对学生在教室中的座位进行评价,他们注意到,开朗活泼且博学的学生最爱坐前排。艺术与人文学院的临时院长、伦敦教育部门的主席克里斯-哈蒙斯博士说:“我注意到,准备越充分,越品貌兼优的学生越爱坐在前排。坐在前排的学生通常考试成绩更好。”

艺术与人文学院的临时院长、伦敦教育部门的主席克里斯-哈蒙斯博士说:

  D. improve the relationship between students and teachers

So at edX and a number of other organizations, we are applying these technologies to education through MOOCs to really increase access to education. And you heard of this example, where, when we launched our very first course -- and this was an MIT-hard circuits and electronics course -- about a year and a half ago, 155,000 students from 162 countries enrolled in this course.And we had no marketing budget.

Perhaps more importantly, the front row may be the ideal location for shy, timid students who have trouble paying attention. Also, sitting closer to the front of the room does have an effect on student-teacher rapport, which is linked to greater academic performance.

“I notice the more prepared and personable students sit in front rows. Students in the front almost always score higher on exams.”

“我注意到,准备越充分,越品学兼优的学生越爱往前坐。坐在前排的学生通常考试成绩更好。”

  4. By dividing students into small groups,teachers _______.

所以在edX网站和一些其他的组织,我们将这些技术应用于教育通过MOOCs,真正增加人们受教育的机会。大家应听说过这个事例,当时我们推出了第一档课程,麻省理工学院的电路与电子技术课程,大约一年半以前来自162个国家的155,000名学生注册了这档课程。

或许更重要的是,前排座位也是害羞胆怯学生的理想之选,因为他们总是不能集中注意力。而且,坐在教室前排还能促进师生关系和谐,从而带来更好的学业表现。

Also, sitting closer to the front of the room does have an effect on student-teacher rapport, which is linked to greater academic performance.

  A. find it easier to handle the in-class teaching

Now, 155,000 is a big number. This number is bigger than the total number of alumni of MIT in its 150-year history.7,200 students passed the course, and this was a hard course. 7,200 is also a big number. If I were to teach at MIT two semesters every year, I would have to teach for 40 years before I could teach this many students.

According to a study published in 2013, GPAs decreased by 0.1 point on a four-point scale for every row further back students sit.

而且,坐在教室前排还能促进师生关系和谐,这与更好的学业表现也有关联。

  B. can participate in group work conveniently

当时我们没有营销预算155,000是个大数目,这个数字大于麻省理工学院的校友总数,自其150年前建校以来7,200 学生通过了这个课程,而且这个课程很难。7,200也是个大数目如果我在麻省理工学院任教每年两个学期,要40年才能教到这么多学生。

根据2013年发表的一项研究,学生每靠后坐一排,GPA成绩就下降0.1分(总分为4分)。

rapport /ræ'pɔː/:融洽

  C. help develop students’ abilities in critical thinking

Now these large numbers are just one part of the story. So today, I want to discuss a different aspect, the other side of MOOCs, take a different perspective. We are taking what we develop and learn in the large and applying it in the small to the classroom, to create a blended model of learning.

中间

According to a study published in 2013, GPAs decreased by 0.1 point on a four-point scale for every row further back students sit.

  D. reinforce students’ ability in cooperation and communication

这些大数目都只是故事的一部分而已。所以今天,我想讨论一个不同的方面大规模网络公开课的另一面,以一个不一样的视角。我们将大量拓展和学习到的知识应用在局部到教室里来创建混合的学习模式。

Still, some students prefer the middle rows. This location in the classroom can make paying attention difficult depending on the student. In fact, Dr. Robert Wallace, a member of the National Education Association, considers choosing to sit in the middle of the classroom one of the worst decisions a student can make. “In a classroom setting, a speaker’s eyes tend to go to the front of the room and the back,” he wrote in an article for Creators.com. “They don’t look at the centre of a room as often or with the same amount of attention.”

根据2013年发表的一项研究,学生每靠后坐一排,GPA成绩就下降0.1分(总分为4分)。

  5. It can be inferred that the author _______.

But before I go into that, let me tell you a story. When my daughter turned 13, became a teenager, she stopped speaking English, and she began speaking this new language. I call it teen-lish. It's a digital language. It's got two sounds: a grunt and a silence.

有些学生选择坐在教室中间的座位,这种座位会使一些学生更难集中注意力。事实上,全美教育协会成员罗伯特-华莱士教授认为,中间排的座位是最差的选择之一。他在发表于创作者网站的一篇文章中说:“在教室里,老师的目光总是落在前排或者后排。他们不怎么看中间排的学生,或者给予的关注没那么多。”

中间

  A. criticizes the importance of teachers in class

但在谈到那之前,我先讲一个故事。我女儿满13岁时步入少年时期,她讲的不再是英语而是开始说这种新的语言,我称之为少年语言,它是一种数字式的语言。它有两种声音:咕哝声和沉默。

后排

图片 34

  B. stresses the importance of interaction among students

"Honey, come over for dinner."

If neither the front nor middle is suitable for a student, there can only be one other solution: the back.

Still, some students prefer the middle rows. This location in the classroom can make paying attention difficult depending on the student.

  C. is reluctant to teach in a classroom in the 21st century

"Hmm."

如果前排和中间排都不合适,他们就只能坐在后排了。

有些学生选择坐在教室中间的座位,这种座位会使一些学生更难集中注意力。

  D. is eager to reform the desk arrangements in his college

"Did you hear me?"

For the broker on the value of classroom seating, the back row would have the lowest value. This fringe vicinity of the physical classroom often plays host to the biggest distractions.

全美教育协会成员罗伯特-华莱士教授认为,中间排的座位是最差的选择之一。

Silence. (Laughter)

如果要评估教室座位的价值,后排价值最低。后排是教室的边缘地带,学生最容易分心。

他在发表于创作者网站的一篇文章中说:

    更多信息请访问:新浪考研频道 考研论坛 考研博客圈

"Can you listen to me?"

Many distractions occur at the back of the classroom. That’s where students would chat, play video games and do some other stuff which the teacher must not know about. With the advent of Facebook and the likes, the situation would be worse by now.

“In a classroom setting, a speaker’s eyes tend to go to the front of the room and the back. They don’t look at the centre of a room as often or with the same amount of attention.”

“在教室里,老师的目光总是落在前排或者后排。他们不怎么看中间排的学生,或者给予的关注没那么多。”

  特别说明:由于各方面情况的不断调整与变化,新浪网所提供的所有考试信息仅供参考,敬请考生以权威部门公布的正式信息为准。

“Hmm.”

教室后排的学生最容易走神。后排的学生常常在聊天、玩电子游戏或者在忙一些老师们肯定不知道的什么事儿。在脸书等等社交媒体出现后,现在情况肯定是更糟糕了。

后排

“亲爱的,过来吃饭”

同一排选择什么座位?

图片 35

“嗯”

Row placement is not the only critical decision students face when choosing a seat. The position of the seat within the row is equally important. Like being on an airplane or at church, the aisle usually gets taken first as it provides the most legroom and easiest escape route when students decide to duck out of class.

For the broker on the value of classroom seating, the back row would have the lowest value.

“听见我说的话了吗”

选座位的时候不仅要考虑选择哪一排,同一排不同座位的挑选也同样重要。就像在飞机上或教堂里,靠近过道的座位总是先被占,因为那里伸腿空间更大,而且坐在靠过道的座位时,学生也最容易从教室溜走。

如果要评估教室座位的价值,后排价值最低。

沉默(笑声)

Students who are late the first day usually end up with middle seats, so punctuality is a good strategy for those seeking the aisle.

This fringe vicinity of the physical classroom often plays host to the biggest distractions.

“能听见我说话吗?”

第一天上课就迟到的学生一般只能坐在中间的座位,所以如果想坐在边上,你得早点到教室。

后排是教室的边缘地带,学生最容易分心。

“嗯”

除了常见的座位排列,下面的几种座位安排方式对某些课堂形式也很有好处。

That’s where students would chat, play video games and do some other stuff which the teacher must not know about.

So we had a real issue with communicating, and we were just not communicating, until one day I had this epiphany. I texted her. I got an instant response. I said, no, that must have been by accident. She must have thought, you know, some friend of hers was calling her. So I texted her again. Boom, another response. I said, this is great. And so since then, our life has changed. I text her, she responds. It's just been absolutely great.

Circle arrangement

后排的学生常常在聊天、玩电子游戏或者在忙一些不想让老师知道的事儿。

因此,我们有一个沟通方面的切实问题,我们根本不是在沟通,直到有一天我才有此顿悟,我发短信给她,得到一个即时的回应。我说,不,那肯定是偶然,你知道,她得想想她的一些朋友在叫她,所以我再次给她发短信,再一次回应我说,这太棒了。于是,从那时起,我们的生活已经改变了,我发短信,她回应。这种模式一直都非常好。

座位排成一圈

With the advent of Facebook and the likes, the situation would be worse by now.

So our millennial generation is built differently. Now, I'm older, and my youthful looks might belie that, but I'm not in the millennial generation. But our kids are really different. The millennial generation is completely comfortable with online technology. So why are we fighting it in the classroom? Let's not fight it. Let's embrace it.

When a teacher is conducting discussions, a circular arrangement can be apt to facilitate the flow of ideas, thoughts and expressions. Students have a clear view of the person expressing their opinions; educators find it easy to control the discussion and can also motivate passive students to pitch in.

在脸书等社交媒体出现后,现在情况肯定是更糟糕了。

我们的千禧一代,成长方式有所不同。现在,我老了,这一点与我年轻的外表并不相称但我不是千禧一代但我们的孩子真的不一样。千禧一代完全适应在线技术,那么我们为什么不在教室里使用这种技术呢?不要再反对它,让我们接受它。

老师组织学生进行讨论时,座位排成一圈有助于学生们灵感迸发,积极表达。学生们都能看清楚谁在发言,老师们也能很容易掌控整个讨论,还能激励一些不那么积极主动的学生参与进来。

除了常见的座位排列,下面的几种座位安排方式对某些课堂形式也很有好处。

In fact, I believe -- and I have two fat thumbs, I can't text very well -- but I'm willing to bet that with evolution, our kids and their grandchildren will develop really, really little, itty-bitty thumbs to text much better, that evolution will fix all of that stuff. But what if we embraced technology, embraced the millennial generation's natural predilections, and really think about creating these online technologies, blend them into their lives.So here's what we can do. So rather than driving our kids into a classroom, herding them out there at 8 o'clock in the morning -- I hated going to class at 8 o'clock in the morning, so why are we forcing our kids to do that?

Semi circular arrangement

图片 36

事实上,我有两个肥胖的拇指,编辑短信并不容易,但我敢说,在进化的过程中我们的孩子和他们的子孙将发育成很小,甚至极小的拇指,以便更好地编辑信息,这种进化将改变诸如此类的东西。但如果我们使用在线技术接受千禧一代天生的优待,真正去创建这些在线技术将其融入他们的生活,会怎样呢?这就是我们能够做到的与其把孩子送进教室,让他们在早上8点钟赶到教室,我以前就讨厌在早上8点钟上课,所以我们为什么要强迫孩子们这样做呢?

座位排成半圆形

Circle arrangement

So instead what you do is you have them watch videos and do interactive exercises in the comfort of their dorm rooms, in their bedroom, in the dining room, in the bathroom, wherever they're most creative. Then they come into the classroom for some in-person interaction. They can have discussions amongst themselves. They can solve problems together. They can work with the professor and have the professor answer their questions. In fact, with edX, when we were teaching our first course on circuits and electronics around the world, this was happening unbeknownst to us.

A semi-circular arrangement can be effective when audio-visual aids, interactive boards, etc. are being used. This ensures clear visibility for every student. Teachers can maintain eye contact with all students and also check to see that they are being attentive. This arrangement can assist in controlling the class as students are in the open and their actions can more easily be observed.

座位排成一圈

倒不如让他们观看视频,做互动性的练习,在舒适的宿舍、卧室、餐厅、浴室任何使他们最具创造力的场所。然后他们再来到教室在人与人之间做一些真实的互动,他们可以相互讨论。可以一起解决问题,他们可以与教授合作并且有教授解答他们的问题。事实上,当我们第一次将课程传到edX上时让整个世界都能学到电路与电子技术这门课,并不知道会发生这样的事。

在使用视听设备和互动板等教学用具时,座位排成半圆形效果很好。这能确保每位同学都看得清楚。老师能与所有同学保持目光接触,看他们是否在认真听讲。学生们在户外上课时,这种座位排列有助于控制课堂,学生的一举一动能更容易被观察到。

When a teacher is conducting discussions, a circular arrangement can be apt to facilitate the flow of ideas, thoughts and expressions.

Two high school teachers at the Sant High School in Mongolia had flipped their classroom, and they were using our video lectures and interactive exercises, where the learners in the high school, 15-year-olds, mind you, would go and do these things in their own homes and they would come into class, and as you see from this image here, they would interact with each other and do some physical laboratory work. And the only way we discovered this was they wrote a blog and we happened to stumble upon that blog.

Round table arrangement

老师组织学生进行讨论时,座位排成一圈有助于学生们灵感迸发,积极表达。

两名高中教师在蒙古国的桑特高中已经转变了他们的课堂教学模式,他们使用我们视频讲座和交互式练习。这所高中的学生,要知道,是15岁的学生会在自己的家园做这些,会进入课堂就像你看到的这幅图片,他们彼此进行交流,做一些物理实验。我们发现这些的唯一途径就是通过他们写的博客,我们碰巧发现了这个博客。

圆桌座位

Students have a clear view of the person expressing their opinions; educators find it easy to control the discussion and can also motivate passive students to pitch in.

We were also doing other pilots. So we did a pilot experimental blended courses, working with San Jose State University in California, again, with the circuits and electronics course. You'll hear that a lot. That course has become sort of like our petri dish of learning. So there, the students would, again, the instructors flipped the classroom, blended online and in person, and the results were staggering.

Planning to give the students some group work? A round table arrangement is probably your best option. It encourages students to sit in friendly groups, facilitates free discussion and allows educators to monitor student work. However, the disadvantage is that there is high probability of students misbehaving when the teacher is not looking.

学生们都能看清楚谁在发言,老师们也能很容易掌控整个讨论,还能激励一些不那么积极主动的学生参与进来。

我们也在做其他的试验。我们做了一个试验性的混合实验课程,同加利福尼亚州的圣何塞州立大学合作,再一次关于电路与电子技术,你将多次听到这门课,该课程已成为我们获取知识的培养皿。在那里,学生们会再次在经过老师改造的课堂教学模式中,将在线教学和课堂教学相结合。

想让学生们完成小组作业?圆桌座位或许是最好的选择。这能鼓励学生们友好地坐在一起,有助于促进自由讨论,也让老师能更好地监督学生的任务完成情况。但缺点是,老师没注意到时,学生更容易搞小动作。

图片 37

Now don't take these results to the bank just yet. Just wait a little bit longer as we experiment with this some more, but the early results are incredible.So traditionally, semester upon semester, for the past several years, this course,again, a hard course, had a failure rate of about 40 to 41 percent every semester. With this blended class late last year, the failure rate fell to nine percent. So the results can be extremely, extremely good.

Semi circular arrangement

结果令人吃惊,到目前为止这些结果还不够真实,还得等我们对此进行更长时间的试验。但早期的结果已经叫人觉得不可思议,用传统的教学方式,一个学期接一个学期在过去几年里,这门课这门难学的课大约有40%到41%的失败率,每个学期 去年年底的这种混合教学将失败率降到9% 这种结果可以说是非常非常好。

座位排成半圆形

Now before we go too far into this, I'd like to spend some time discussing some key ideas. What are some key ideas that makes all of this work?

A semi-circular arrangement can be effective when audio-visual aids, interactive boards, etc. are being used.

在我们深入探讨之前我想花些时间讨论 一些核心观念,是什么样的核心想法使这一切如此奏效。

在使用视听设备和互动板等教学用具时,座位排成半圆形效果很好。

One idea is active learning. The idea here is, rather than have students walk into class and watch lectures,we replace this with what we call lessons. Lessons are interleaved sequences of videos and interactive exercises. So a student might watch a five-, seven-minute video and follow that with an interactive exercise.Think of this as the ultimate Socratization of education. You teach by asking questions.

This ensures clear visibility for every student.

一个观点是主动学习。这个观点,不是说让学生走进课堂听讲座,而是用课程来代替这类课程包括连续分节的教学视频和互动练习,所以学生可能看一段五分钟或七分钟的视频,并按视频内容做互动练习。把它看做是终极的苏格拉底式教育,通过提问来教学。

这能确保每位同学都看得清楚。

And this is a form of learning called active learning, and really promoted by a very early paper, in 1972, by Craik and Lockhart,where they said and discovered that learning and retention really relates strongly to the depth of mental processing. Students learn much better when they are interacting with the material.

Teachers can maintain eye contact with all students and also check to see that they are being attentive.

这是一种学习形式叫做主动学习。早期文件显示,这种学习方法在1972年经由克雷克和洛克哈特推行而兴起,他们提出并发现学习和持久记忆与大脑加工知识过程的深度大有关系,学生会学得更好,如果他们结合这些学习资料。

老师能与所有同学保持目光接触,看他们是否在认真听讲。

The second idea is self-pacing. Now, when I went to a lecture hall, and if you were like me, by the fifth minute I would lose the professor. I wasn't all that smart, and I would be scrambling, taking notes, and then I would lose the lecture for the rest of the hour. Instead, wouldn't it be nice with online technologies, we offer videos and interactive engagements to students? They can hit the pause button. They can rewind the professor. Heck, they can even mute the professor. So this form of self-pacing can be very helpful to learning.

This arrangement can assist in controlling the class as students are in the open and their actions can more easily be observed.

第二个观点是自定步调学习。我一旦进入讲堂如果你是像我一样,五分钟内就会跟不上这位教授。我不太聪明,我会焦急的记着笔记,然后余下的时间就跟不上了。相反,在线教学技术不是很好吗?我们为学生提供视频和互动式参与,他们可以按暂停按钮,可以回放课程甚至,他们可以消音。这种自定步调的学习形式非常有助于学习。

学生们在户外上课时,这种座位排列有助于控制课堂,学生的一举一动能更容易被观察到。

The third idea that we have is instant feedback. With instant feedback, the computer grades exercises. I mean, how else do you teach 150,000 students? Your computer is grading all the exercises. And we've all submitted homeworks, and your grades come back two weeks later, you've forgotten all about it. I don't think I've still received some of my homeworks from my undergraduate days. Some are never graded.

图片 38

第三个观点是即时反馈。有了即时反馈,计算机可以为练习评分,不然你要怎么教十五万学生,您的计算机会对所有练习打分。我们都曾提交过作业你的成绩会在两周后反馈回来。那时你已经忘了作业内容,我认为我不会再收到一些本科时期的作业一些永远不会评分的作业。

Round table arrangement

So with instant feedback, students can try to apply answers. If they get it wrong, they can get instant feedback. They can try it again and try it again, and this really becomes much more engaging. They get the instant feedback, and this little green check mark that you see here is becoming somewhat of a cult symbol at edX.Learners are telling us that they go to bed at night dreaming of the green check mark. In fact, one of our learners who took the circuits course early last year, he then went on to take a software course from Berkeley at the end of the year, and this is what the learner had to say on our discussion board when he just started that course about the green check mark: Oh god“have I missed you ”

圆桌座位

有这样的即时反馈,学生可以试着填上答案,如果做错了,他们可以获得即时反馈,他们可以一次又一次的尝试这个过程更加迷人,他们得到的即时反馈就是你看到的这个小小的绿色复选标记,它成了edX上令人痴迷的符号,学习者告诉我们他们晚上上床睡觉都做着绿色对号的梦。事实上,有一名学习者去年年初学习了那门电路课程,接着,他又修了一门伯克利大学的软件课程,就在同年年底这位学习者在讨论板上提到他刚刚开始学那门课的时候关于绿色的复选标记的想法: “天啊,我是那么的想念你”

Planning to give the students some group work? A round table arrangement is probably your best option.

When's the last time you've seen students posting comments like this about homework? My colleague Ed Bertschinger, who heads up the physics department at MIT, has this to say about instant feedback: He indicated that instant feedback turns teaching moments into learning outcomes.

想让学生们完成小组作业?圆桌座位或许是最好的选择。

你最后一次见到学生对家庭作业发表如此评论是什么时候?我的同事Ed Bertschinger 担任麻省理工学院物理系的主任,曾对即时反馈有这样的说法:他表示,即时反馈使教学时刻即时体现出学习成果。

It encourages students to sit in friendly groups, facilitates free discussion and allows educators to monitor student work.

The next big idea is gamification. You know, all learners engage really well with interactive videos and so on.You know, they would sit down and shoot alien spaceships all day long until they get it. So we applied these gamification techniques to learning, and we can build these online laboratories. How do you teach creativity? How do you teach design?

这能鼓励学生们友好地坐在一起,有助于促进自由讨论,也让老师能更好地监督学生的任务完成情况。

另一个伟大的理念是游戏化模式,所有学习都者都能很好的利用,互动式教学视频等等。他们会整天坐在那拍摄外星人的宇宙飞船,直到他们拍摄到。所以我们可以将这些游戏化的技术应用到学习中,我们可以建立在线实验室你如何教会学生发挥创造力?你如何教学生学习设计?

However, the disadvantage is that there is high probability of students misbehaving when the teacher is not looking.

We can do this through online labs and use computing power to build these online labs. So as this little video shows here, you can engage students much like they design with Legos. So here, the learners are building a circuit with Lego-like ease. And this can also be graded by the computer.

但缺点是,老师没注意到时,学生更容易搞小动作。

我们可以通过在线实验室来实现,使用计算机建立这些在线实验室就像这个小小的视频所显示的一样,您可以吸引学生的注意力就像他们用乐高进行设计。在这儿,学习者正在构建一个电路,像玩乐高一样轻松这也可以由计算机来打分。

图片 39

Fifth is peer learning. So here, we use discussion forums and discussions and Facebook-like interaction not as a distraction, but to really help students learn. Let me tell you a story. When we did our circuits course for the 155,000 students, I didn't sleep for three nights leading up to the launch of the course. I told my TAs, okay, 24/7, we're going to be up monitoring the forum, answering questions.

- End -

第五点是同伴学习。所以,我们使用论坛讨论还有类似脸书的互动,不为消遣而是真正有助于学生学习。给大家讲一个故事,当我们的电路课程要为那155,000的学生上线时我连着三个晚上没睡觉引领课程上线。我每时每刻都在告诉我的助教们人数会上涨的,监测论坛、回答问题。

版权声明 |本文来源于英语奇葩秀(微信号:aayyqp),部分图片来自网络,版权归原作者所有,海外导师诚意推荐。

They had answered questions for 100 students. How do you do that for 150,000? So one night I'm sitting up there, at 2 a.m. at night, and I think there's this question from a student from Pakistan, and he asked a question, and I said, okay, let me go and type up an answer, I don't type all that fast, and I begin typing up the answer, and before I can finish,another student from Egypt popped in with an answer, not quite right, so I'm fixing the answer, and before I can finish, a student from the U.S. had popped in with a different answer.

↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓

他们解答了100名学生提出的问题。面对15万学生要怎么办一天晚上我坐在那,凌晨两点钟,思考一个巴基斯坦的学生提出的问题,他问了一个问题我想好吧就去键入一个答案吧,我可以慢点写,然后我开始键入答案,还没写完,另一名埃及的学生就弹出了一个答案。不完全正确所以我就完善了一下,我还没有改完,又有一个来自美国的学生突然弹出了一个不同的答案。

↓↓↓↓↓↓↓

And then I sat back, fascinated.Boom, boom, boom, boom, the students were discussing and interacting with each other, and by 4 a.m.that night, I'm totally fascinated, having this epiphany, and by 4 a.m. in the morning, they had discovered the right answer. And all I had to do was go and bless it, "Good answer." So this is absolutely amazing, where students are learning from each other, and they're telling us that they are learning by teaching.

加海外导师主页君个人微信(seesoaredu),可与主页君直接对话,快速获取海外学习帮助,获得免费咨询哦~返回搜狐,查看更多

然后我坐回去,被吸引住了 砰 砰 砰 砰 学生之间,相互讨论交流,那天凌晨四点我完全入迷,他们渐渐顿悟到早上4点钟他们发现了正确的答案。我能做的就是去赞美一下 "答得好" 这太让人惊讶了,学生之间彼此学习。这告诉我们他们是因教而学。

责任编辑:

Now this is all not just in the future. This is happening today. So we are applying these blended learning pilots in a number of universities and high schools around the world, from Tsinghua in China to the National University of Mongolia in Mongolia to Berkeley in California -- all over the world. And these kinds of technologies really help, the blended model can really help revolutionize education.

这一切不是只存在于未来,今天也同样在发生。所以我们将这些混合学习模式试验应用到世界各地的一些大学和高中,从中国的清华大学到蒙古的蒙古国立大学到加州的伯克利大学到整个世界。这种类型的技术,这种混合教学模式可以真正帮助改革教育领域,它也能解决大规模网络公开课的实际问题。

It can also solve a practical problem of MOOCs, the business aspect.We can also license these MOOC courses to other universities, and therein lies a revenue model for MOOCs, where the university that licenses it with the professor can use these online courses like the next-generation textbook. They can use as much or as little as they like, and it becomes a tool in the teacher's arsenal.

在其商业方面我们还可以授权这些网络公开课面向其他的大学,其中蕴藏着MOOCs的收益模式,那些授权使用的大学,其任课教授可以使用这些在线课程就像下一代的教科书,他们可以想用多少就用多少它就是老师武器库中的一个工具。

Finally, I would like to have you dream with me for a little bit. I would like us to really reimagine education.We will have to move from lecture halls to e-spaces. We have to move from books to tablets like the Aakash in India or the Raspberry Pi, 20 dollars. The Aakash is 40 dollars. We have to move from bricks-and-mortar school buildings to digital dormitories.

最后,我想要大家与我一起想象一小会儿,我希望能够真正重新定义教育,我们将会有从讲堂转移到电子空间。我们要从使用书本转移到使用平板电脑,就像印度的Aakash平板电脑或20美元的树莓派电脑,Aakash平板售价40美元我们要从砖泥构筑的学校建筑转移到数字化房间。

But I think at the end of the day, I think we will still need one lecture hall in our universities. Otherwise, how else do we tell our grandchildren that your grandparents sat in that room in neat little rows like cornstalksand watched this professor at the end talk about content and, you know, you didn't even have a rewind button?

但我想终有一天,我们仍然需要一个课堂保留在大学里,否则我们要怎样告诉我们的子孙,你们的爷爷奶奶当初就坐在那个房间里一排一排整齐的就像田里的玉米杆,然后在后排看着教授讲授知识,知道吗?你根本没有后退键可以按。

Thank you.(Applause)

Thank you. Thank you. (Applause)

谢谢(掌声)谢谢 谢谢(掌声)

**【 最 热 TED 】**

TED | 婴儿的天才语言能力

哈佛75年研究 如何更好地生活

TED | 请一定要睡个好觉

TED | 重新认识出轨行为

TED | 如何掌控你的自由时间

纪录片 | 航拍中国

本文由9159com金沙网站发布于教育资讯,转载请注明出处:成绩不好原来是选错了座位,同等学力考研英语

关键词:

上一篇:U.S.民代表大会学生专门的学业选用有啥变化

下一篇:没有了