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Studies show people who work less are more likely to get a raise or bonus than those who overwork. Mark Johanson reports on the downside of long working hours

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9159com金沙网站:日本劳动节,2006年同等学力真题卷及参考答案。Japan has a culture of long working hours, but even in this generally tough and stressful working environment some companies stand out because of the complete disregard for their employees’ well-being. They are known as “black companies” and anyone who has ever wanted to experience what working for such organizations is like, without actually getting a job at one, can find out by applying for a special event called “The Black Holiday”.


With the worst behind and signs of positive demand for outsourcing and off shoring from the U.S. and European markets, which account for about 80 percent of Indian software exports, the IT industry is gearing up for a gradual recovery in the new year. But Indian IT industry still continues to face the problem of attrition, especially when companies are now offering strong pay packages to make up for the lost ground. What really drives employees to jump jobs? Is it only due to bad bosses or there are other reasons involved as well?

  SANTANAing to Scott 亚当斯, creator of the comic strip(类别漫画)Dilbert, the annual performance review is “one of the most frightening and weakening experiences in every employee’s life”. 亚当斯’ stories and comic figures poke fun at the workplace, but his characterization of people’s feelings about the annual performance review has its serious side. Although a recent study of 437 companies indicates that effective annual performance reviews can help raise profits, most employees of those companies hate them.

  1. 英译汉


By Mark Johanson

9159com金沙网站,SiliconIndia surveyed people from the IT industry to find out top 10 reasons why people quit their job in IT industry. While we were sure that organization and management play a crucial part in the decision, there were many other reasons as well which may have become more relevant in recent times. "While most people including the managers are of the opinion that majority of people leave because they are unhappy with their compensation, nothing could be farther from the truth. There has been enough research done globally and across industry segments to prove that unhappiness with compensation is only one of the many reasons that people think about quitting," said Puneet Jetli, Senior Vice President and Head - People Function, MindTree.

  In theory, annual performance reviews are constructive and positive interactions between managers and employees working together to attain maximum performance and strengthen the organization. In reality, they often create division, undermine morale, and spark anger and jealousy. Thus, although the object of the annual performance review is to improve performance, it often has the opposite result. A programmer at an IT firm was stunned to learn at her annual performance review that she was denied a promotion because she wasn’t a “team player.” What were the data used to make this judgment? She didn’t smile in the company photo.

Switching to a seven-hour workday paid off: output went up, with the line churning out 10% to 15% more merchandise each day. Plus, he added, his staff — many of whom have been with the company one to three decades, appreciated getting home earlier.

It’s hard to imagine anyone ever wanting to experience what a ‘black company’ is like, but especially so on Friday, November 23, when Japan celebrates Labor Thanksgiving Day. It’s a national holiday and a rare opportunity to enjoy a long weekend free of work-related stress. But that’s exactly why the organizers of The Black Holiday chose this date for their special event. What better way to emphasize just how bad working for a black company can be than having you do it on your day off, right?

13 January 2017

  1. Mismatch between the promised job and the situation on hand

  Although this story might sound as if it came straight out of Dilbert, it is a true account of one woman’s experience. By following a few ideas and guidelines from industry analysis, this kind of ordeal can be avoided:

Shorter workdays have made headlines lately, thanks to Gothenburg, Sweden. On 1 July, the city began a year-long experiment with six-hour days, enlisting a segment of government employees to work less than their eight-hour-a-day counterparts, for the same pay.


When Stuart Nomimizu relocated from Birmingham, England, to Tokyo his friends and family in the UK started to worry. Not only did they rarely hear from him, but he seemed to always be at the office from early morning until very late at night. His working hours seemed so extreme, that they didn’t always believe he was working as hard as he said.

Employees are often promised certain things on what exactly the jobs consist of but after joining the company they find out a completely different picture. It becomes painfully clear to the new hire that the company played a bait-and-switch game and now they are trapped in doing something that they don't want to.

  To end the year with a positive and useful performance review, managers and employees must start the year by working together to establish clear goals and expectations.

The hope is that staffers working shorter days will accomplish just as much, only with more efficiency and less calling in sick. It’s a nice idea, but will it — and other efforts to shorten hours in the office — work?

Super Miracle Happy, the fictitious black company that 30 “lucky” applicants will have the chance to work for during The Black Holiday, is actually made up of a group of Japanese actors who will do their best to replicate the working environment of real black companies. It’s unclear what exactly these volunteers will experience during their one-day employment, but we do know that the actors’ performances will be based on true stories from people who have worked in Japanese black companies.?

StuartNomimizu从United Kingdom萨拉热窝搬到了日本东京(Tokyo),他英国的朋友和亲朋亲密的朋友很焦炙。不仅是因为她俩异常少收到他的通讯,而且她如同总是在办公,从很早待到很晚。他的办事时间就好像太过火苛刻,以至于他们并不三回九转相信他如他说的均等力图干活。

  1. Limited opportunity for personal growth and skills

  It may be helpful to allow employees to propose a list of people associated with the company who will be in a good position to assess their performance at the end of the year; these people may be co-workers, suppliers, or even customer.

The grand productivity experiment


To convince them, he documented one week of his life as a so-called “salaryman” in Tokyo’s financial-services industry and posted it online so they could understand his new lifestyle.

"Every ambitious person is looking to further their career in the shortest possible span of time. Hence despite being in a high growth sector if there isn't ample opportunity for reasonably quick vertical or lateral growth; then it is usually time to move on," says Pradeep Thomas Abraham, Managing Director of Paytronic Networks limited. The most successful employers find ways to help employees develop new skills and responsibilities in their current positions.

  Goals should be measurable but flexible, and everyone should sign off on the plan.

Studies of past attempts by various countries to trim employees’ workdays have yielded conflicting results.


为了让United Kingdom的爱人和亲朋基友信服,他记下了她当作东京经济服务业一名工薪族的一周的生存,并上传来网络来让对象和家里人精通他的新的活着方式。

  1. Boss too much to handle

  By checking employees’ progress at about nine months, managers can give them a chance to correct mistakes and provide guidance to those who need it before the year is out.



Prashant Hannovar, Manager of Human Resource of NextBiT Computing has had a fair deal of experience in dealing with different kinds of candidates. He says, "Employee leaves the organization because of a manager's leadership style or bad management style. Employee leave because of managers who puts the blame on the other employee, making others a scape goat, a Micro manager-who is known for having no trust/confidence in self and on the team."

  When conducting the reviews, managers should highlight strengths and weaknesses during the past year and discuss future responsibilities, avoiding punishment of blame.

  1. 英译汉

"If my boss didn’t like you, he’d make you stand by his desk while he ignored you and fiddled with his PC for four to six hours,” one former black company employee said.

Marathon workdays are so entrenched in Japanese culture that  here’s even a word, karoshi, that quite literally means “overwork death” (Credit: Alamy)

  1. Lack of recognition of the good work being put-in

  In short, when employees leave their performance reviews, they should be focusing on what they can do better in the year ahead, not worrying about what went into their files about the past.




Individual accomplishments should be considered by the company and should be pointed out in praise that will help to further increase productivity, make the employee feel appreciated, and create an example for other employees to follow, knowing that they will be rewarded. "Many employees who have quit and answered the exit interviews have revealed on not getting recognized despite of hard work/good Performance," says Hannovar.

  51.In his comic strip Dilbert, Scott Adams .


"For a required ‘development retreat,’ we were confined in a tiny one-room apartment near our office for several hours,” another person said.

Theresulting videowent viral on YouTube, racking up more than one million views. It depicts a hectic week in 2015 during the financial sector’s busy season — from January to March — when Nomimizu clocked in 78 working hours and 35 sleeping hours between Monday and Saturday (before working another six hours that Sunday, which you don’t see in the video).

  1. Management freezes raises and promotions

  A.makes fun of working peopleB.tells a story about a woman employee




Money is not always a very important category for people to quit, but it definitely ranks high. Many employees quit the Organization as they get better compensation/salaries with the competitors. Also with the salaries, many of the Techies (engineers) today are offered Onsite opportunity too. This is the normal phenomena in the IT Industry which nothing much can be worked out.

  C.promotes team spirit among co-workersD.mocks annual performance reviews


"One of the members of the board of directors (the president’s son) took me to a private room at a bar where he spent two hours trying to convince me to go on a travel date to Okinawa with him, then got angry at me for being indecisive when I tried to dodge the question of whether or not I would go with him.”

Marathon workdays are so entrenched in the Japanese culture that there’s even a word, karoshi, that quite literally means ‘overwork death’

  1. Poor work culture/work ethic

  52.All the following are mentioned as the drawbacks of annual performance reviews EXCEPT .



It got to the point where Nomimizu was putting in so many 80-hour work weeks that he fainted in his apartment one night andcame-to right next to a TV stand, which he’d narrowly missed.When the rush period was finally over, he says the entire office got “horrendously sick.”

Another important factor that results in undesired attrition is the bad work culture. Bad work culture constitutes unhealthy political work environment where you can find lot of rumors/grape wines, partiality, favoritism, lack of trust, lack of good HR best practices like restrictions imposed on the employees on clothing, leaves and many more.   

  A.reducing efficiencyB.creating tension


According to a promotional job ad, Super Miracle Happy is a company from the medical devices sector looking to higher people who “have stamina, endurance, and never complain”. The poster shows an shadowy and frankly creepy manager welcoming applicants to “the company that people most want to quit from in all the world.” Super Miracle Happy is looking for 30 new employees who will have to work in two 90-minute shifts, one starting 1 pm, and the other at 6 pm, but keep in mind that this is a black company, so expect some mandatory overtime.


  1. Inability to maintain/achieve a healthy work-life balance

  C.undermining moraleD.inducing anger



While Nomimizu’s excessive workload was somewhat temporary, he says “there are people working for companies in Tokyo that do that sort of workload and have that life day-in, day-out all year long.” Indeed, marathon workdays are so entrenched in the culture that there’s even a Japanese word,karoshi, that quite literally means “overwork death.”

In the light of the recent trend of laying off huge number of employees, many employees (who are not fired) feel the heat of too much work. Sometimes they find themselves doing the work of more than two people which often result into work taken home and extended office hours. Too much work often creates stress which can force the employee to quit.

  53.The word “ordeal” in Paragraph 3 probably refers to .

  1. 汉译英

IT Media reports that selected applicants are likely to see other employees of Super Miracle Happy resting in sleeping bags when they first enter the company’s office, and can expect to be yelled at and scolded for much of their 90-minute shifts. The organizers acknowledge that the stress of working for a Japanese black company, even for one day, could be a bit too much for some people, so they urge selected candidates that their bosses are really just paid actors playing a role. Instead of resorting to any kind of violence, stressed-out employees are invited to offer a letter of resignation if at any point they want to cut their experience short and go home.

尽管Nomimizu的过分职业在必然水平上是不经常的,他说“在东京,集团里的人成年承受这种程度的职业量。” 事实上,四分马拉松式的行事在东瀛知识中是可怜深厚的,德语中还是还会有“karoshi”二次用来说述过劳死。

  1. Lack of Feedback Mechanisms

  A.likelihood of promotionB.depressive experience

China will encourage innovation across the country, and make innovation a driving force for our economic growth.

据IT Media网站报导,被录用的求职者刚进来集团的办公室时将恐怕看到“一级神迹喜笑貌开”集团的别样干部在睡袋中睡觉,而且在她们90分钟的劳作元帅有相当的大学一年级部分岁月被吼骂指谪。协会者认可,在东瀛黑公司的干活压力,尽管唯有一天,也大概让有些人收受不住,所以她们会提醒被入选的求职者,他们的“老总”其实只是拿钱扮演剧中人物的饰演者。为了幸免大家诉诸于暴力,如若职员在其余时候不堪重负想提前截至经历回家,组织者款待职员提交辞职信。

Lot of managers don't provide the proper feedback at regular intervals on the employee performance. Many employees look for feedback which helps them to grow in their career. Lack of feedback makes an employee or the team members frustrated, feel out of the team or lost, which leads to the rise in the attrition level in the organization.

  C.poor performanceD.unrealistic expectation

China will put people first in its development. No one will be left behind. The benefits of development will be shared by every Chinese and give people a strong sense of achievement and happiness.

While The Black Holiday sounds like a special event for masochists, SoraNews24 claims that it is actually aimed at two categories of people: employees dissatisfied with their current jobs, but hesitant to look for something better (employees hope that the experience will inspire them to look for better employment opportunities), and managers and executives (organizers hope that they will have greater empathy for their employees after spending a day in their shoes).

It got to the point where Stuart Nomimizu (left) was working so many 80-hour work weeks in Tokyo that he fainted (Credit: Stuart Nomimizu)

  1. Lack of decision-making power

  54.The annual performance reviews, to be effective, must focus on .

China will step up poverty alleviation by focusing on the most needy. The target for 2018 is helping over 10 million rural people out of poverty, and the goal for 2020 is to eliminate poverty in all poor counties and regions, and to help all rural residents living below the current poverty line get rid of poverty.


The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare released the government’s firstreporton karoshi this October, and it found that nearly one in four (23%) companies have some employees who work more than 80 hours of overtime per month.

A lot of managers simply do not know how to delegate effectively. This results in undue micro management by the immediate superior that shakes the faith and self confidence of the employee. A manager should empower employees and allow them the freedom to make suggestions and to take decisions.

  A.making employees aware of their company’s future goals


  1. No fun or enjoyment in job/ unchallenged

  B.involving employees in assessing their own performance

If you’re the first person to leave, you won’t be viewed as a team player

Two scenarios can fit into this. One is when employee becomes dull of the daily routine. Same job, with same skills and everything becomes dull, then it's time for employees to move on. The second scenario can be when employee don't feel challenged with the current job. Employees sometime need more responsibilities and work to challenge their skills or they leave in hunt of another job for fresh challenges.

  C.encouraging employees to achieve better future performance

“The Japanese have a very high sense of respect for their fellow colleagues, but there is also an inability to speak one’s mind,” Nomimizu says. “So you have a lot of people at a lower level who will stay in the office until their manager leaves at a ridiculously late hour.” The 26-year-old explains that if you’re the first person to leave, you won’t be viewed as a team player.

There are many more reasons which may be valid from person to person but these are the top ten reasons which the IT industry must really look upon to improve on to reduce attrition. The only way to work on retention is to pro-actively focus on establishing policies, practices, systems and culture that help reduce triggers on these counts.

  D.highlighting what responsibilities employees have failed in

“印度人对于他们的同事具备非常高的远瞻,可是个人是不可能讲出本身的主见。” Nomimizu说。“所以重重职位低的人会在办公室待到非常晚,直到他们的经纪离开。” 二十七岁的Nomimizu解释说纵然您是第叁个离开的人,你将不会被视为团队中的一员。

  55.The general attitude of the author toward Adam’s comic strip Dilbert is .


Nearly one in four Japanese companies have some employees who work more than 80 hours of overtime per month (Credit: Getty Images)

Are the long-working Japanese any more productive than their global counterparts? Nomimizu doesn’t think so. Indeed, there’s a growing body of evidence to suggest that working longer hours is not only bad for our health, but also detrimental for our careers and poor for a company’s overall productivity.

    越来越多音信请访问:新浪考研频道 考研论坛 报考硕士博客圈



When less is more

If there’s another country that’s notorious for its long work hours and lack of time off, it’s the United States. A recentGallup pollfound that the average full-time employee in the US works a 47-hour week, nearly a full workday longer than the standard nine-to-five schedule. Moreover, nearly one in five workers (18%) reports working 60 hours or more per week.


People who take more time off — 11 days or more — are more likely to get a raise or bonus than people who take 10 or fewer days

Despite sacrificing time off with family and friends to toil away in the office, a separate report from the US-based campaign Project: Time Off discovered that long-working office martyrs were less likely than their peers to have received a bonus in the last three years.

即使捐躯了与亲人、朋友在一块的时光而在办公室里勤奋专门的工作,以美利坚联邦合众国为检察基础的选举项目Time Off中一项独立的报告建议:在这段日子的五年内,长日子工作的办公烈士相比较他们的同龄人获得表彰的或是越来越小。

Japanese workers have a very high sense of respect for their colleagues. If you’re always first to leave, you're unlikely to be viewed as a team player (Credit: Getty Images)

“We actually find that people who takemoretime off — 11 days or more — are more likely to get a raise or bonus than people who take 10 or fewer days,” says Katie Denis, lead researcher at Project: Time Off. “So if you’re not getting ahead — and we find no correlation between hours worked and getting ahead — then what are you doing it for?”

“大家真的发掘消费11天以至更加多时间去休憩的人比只歇息10天或越来越少的人更便于拿到升高或表彰”,Time Off项指标上位调查员,卡蒂丹尼斯说。“所以若是您不是领头人--大家也开掘工时和首席实践官地位之间并从未联系----那么您做它是为着什么吗?”

Diminishing returns

Laura Vanderkam, time management expert and author of 168 Hours, notes that, “your brain, like anything, can’t run on unlimited.” In fact, it’s actually bad for us to push beyond our limits. “As we work past a point of diminishing returns we wind up making mistakes,” she says. “We also don’t bring our best ideas and energy to the problems we’re trying to solve.”

洛拉Vanderkam,时间医学者,同一时间是《168钟头》的小编,注意到,“你的大脑就疑似任何事物同样,是无法无界定地运营的。” 事实上,当先我们的极限运维对于大家是那一个不佳的。“一旦我们办事时间长度超越低收入递减的临界点,大家就轻易犯错误,” 她说。“同一时候,大家拿不出最棒的主张和精力来减轻难题。”

People who take 11 days or more off are more likely to get a raise or bonus than people who take 10 or fewer days as holiday (Credit: Alamy)

There are several remedies to overworking. For instance, many of us believe we need to be in the office both when our boss shows up and when he or she leaves. However, Vanderkam thinks that’s a big (and often misguided) assumption. “Maybe your boss wants the place to herself in the morning and she’s actually annoyed that you’re getting there early, too.”


Vanderkam also thinks a lot of people aren’t willing to consciously build breaks into their daily schedule out of fear they won’t be seen as hard workers. “So we sabotage our own productivity by saying ‘I’m just going to work all day, have my lunch at my desk, and fall into the 2:30 pm rabbit hole of the internet’,” she explains.


A silver lining

While trading rest for unpaid overtime is clearly a bad deal for employees, it’s actually pretty lousy for employers, too. A Stanford University study found that employee output declines sharply after 50 hours per week and nosedives after 56 hours to the point where someone who puts in 70 hours doesn’t produce anything more with those additional 14 hours. Similar studies have linked long hours with absenteeism, long-term memory loss and impaired decision-making skills.


So what are companies doing to combat the inevitable burnout? Major Japanese corporations have actually taken a lead on the issue. Toyota now limits overtime to 360 hours a year (or an average of 30 hours monthly), while ad agency Dentsu just released an eight-point plan (including regular vacation encouragement and lights out at the office by 22:00) to improve its work environment after the high-profile suicide of one of its employees.


In Germany, meanwhile, major companies like BMW and Volkswagen have limited after-hours employee emails to combat a growing culture of hyper-connectivity. In the US, leading investment banks like Credit Suisse and JPMorgan Chase have issued new guidelines to discourage analysts and associates (particularly the lower-ranking millennial workers) from coming to the office on weekends.

在德意志联邦共和国,大商号如宝三保太监Volkswagen限制下班后给雇员发邮件来抵抗日益增添的可观统一的学问。在美利坚合众国,超越的投资银行像Credit Suisse和JPMorganChase发表了新的指南来劝阻深入分析师和帮助办公室(极度是低排位的千禧一代的老干部)周末来办公。

Vanderkam notes that when you run a machine without maintenance you run a high risk of it breaking down over time, and possibly at an incredibly inopportune moment. It seems many companies have started to realise that the same is true of humans, too.




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