9159com金沙网站 > 教育资讯 > 9159com金沙网站:年度词汇出炉,究竟有什么用途

原标题:9159com金沙网站:年度词汇出炉,究竟有什么用途

浏览次数:176 时间:2019-06-22

9159com金沙网站 1

It has announced "youthquake", referring to the rallying of young people by Jeremy Corbyn's Labour Party during the 2017 General Election, as its word of the year.

各大英文词典选出了哪些2016年度词汇?跟哪些事件有关?

Lexicon Leaders: Words of the Year

How often do you use the word “nice”? I have no idea how many times I physically utter the word “nice” in a single day, but I‘d guess it’s a lot。

2018 was toxic.

日前牛津词典宣布“青年震荡”被评为年度词汇(as its word of the year.作为年度词汇)。“青年震荡”指的是2017英国大选期间杰里米•科尔宾领导的工党拉拢年轻人(rallying)的行为。

  1. post-truth(后真相)Oxford Dictionaries牛津词典**)(

① As December turns to January, dictionary-publishers and others name their words of the year.

你有多经常用到“nice”这个词呢?我不知道我每天具体要说多少次“nice”,但我觉得次数一定少不了。

2018年是“有毒的”。

The word saw a 400 percent increase in usage between 2016 and 2017, and "highlights the increased awareness of young people’s capacity to influence, and even drive, political change," it said.

After much discussion, debate, and research, the Oxford Dictionaries Word of the Year 2016 is post-truth– an adjective defined as ‘relating to or denoting circumstances in which objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief’.

② For 2017 Merriam-Webster, an American publisher, went with "feminism", in recognition of the activism of the Women's March and the #MeToo movement denouncing sexual harassment.

So: How can one word serve as the appropriate response to both impending doom and caffeine breaks?

That's the view of the esteemed?9159com金沙网站,Oxford Dictionaries. It has chosen the word as its annual "Word of the Year".

牛津词典称,该词在2016年至2017年间的使用率(increase in usage )增加了400%,而且“凸显出(highlights)人们更多地意识到年轻人影响甚至驱动政治变化的能力”。

牛津词典将“post-truth”选为2016年度词汇。post-truth定义为“在塑造公共舆论方面,客观事实不如情感和个人信念更有影响力”。

③ Dictionary.com chose "complicit", much looked-up on its website after Ivanka Trump was asked if she was complicit in her father's actions as president.

那么,这个词怎么能既适用于大难临头的场合,又适用于茶歇时间呢?

这是著名的《牛津词典》的看法。《牛津词典》近日将toxic这个词选为其2018年度词汇。

Casper Grathwohl, president of Oxford Dictionaries, said youthquake had taken the top spot because it was a "rare political word that sounds a hopeful note”.

The concept of post-truthhas been in existence for the past decade, but Oxford Dictionaries has seen a spike in frequency this year in the context of the EU referendum in the United Kingdom and the presidential election in the United States. It has also become associated with a particular noun, in the phrase post-truth politics.

④ Oxford Dictionaries puzzled readers with "youthquake", a wave of enthusiasm allegedly spotted several times this year in British politics (though the word itself seems little-used).

According to lexicon history, “nice” has led an erratic existence。 Over the years, “nice” has meant everything from “lewd” to “coy” to “kind。” Oxford Dictionaries cruises through the meandering history of the word on its blog。

Defining the word as “poisonous”, Oxford said it had become a “descriptor for the year’s most talked about topics”. The dictionary pointed to a 45% rise in the number of times the word has been looked up on its website, and said it best captured “the ethos, mood, or preoccupations” of 2018.

牛津词典总裁卡斯帕•格拉斯沃说,‘青年震荡’居首(taken the top spot  处于第一位)是因为这是“罕见(rare)的一个让人燃起希望(sounds a hopeful 拥有希望)的政治词汇”。

“post-truth”成为牛津词典2016年度词汇,与英国脱欧公投和美国总统大选有关。相关的名词是“post-truth politics(后真相政治)”。

⑤ Collins, another dictionary-publisher, went with "fake news", Donald Trump's go-to riposte to unwelcome press.

根据词汇历史学,“nice”是一个捉摸不定的词。若干年来,它曾具备各种各样的含义,从“下流的”到“腼腆的”到“和善的”,牛津词典就在博客上回顾了这个词曲折的历史。

《牛津词典》表示,“有毒的”(toxic)已经成为“2018年最热议话题的主题词”。“有毒的”在牛津词典网站的搜索次数增加了45%,精准地体现出2018年的“气质、情绪或关注焦点”。

"Sometimes you pick a word as the Word of the Year because you recognize that it has arrived, but other times you pick one that is knocking at the door and you want to help usher in," he said.

9159com金沙网站 2

⑥ Last to announce its choice is the American Dialect Society, which will do so on January 5th at its annual conference, being held in Salt Lake City.

The word “nice,” Oxford claims, has pretty negative roots in the Latin “nescius,” meaning “ignorant。” But it really took off in the 14th century as a term for something foolish or silly。 The negative connotations ballooned from there。 “Nice” was used to refer to a variety of less-than-great sentiments including wantonness, extravagance, ostentation, lasciviousness, cowardice and sloth。 Like, “Teobaldus, your fear of the Black Plague is nice。”

First appearing in English in the mid-17th century, from the medieval Latin toxicus, “toxic” has also been used to describe workplaces, schools, relationships, cultures and stress over the last year.

他说:“有时候你将某个词选为年度词汇是因为你意识到它已经到来,但有些时候你选择某个词汇则是因为它虽然尚在门口(knocking at the door 在敲门),但你想把它迎进来(help usher in帮助进入)。”

图片源于网络

⑦ It will also pick words it deems "most useful" and "most likely to succeed"—plus a "WTF word of the year".

牛津词典称“nice”一词源自拉丁语里的贬义词“nescius”,意思是“无知的”。但它实际上是从14世纪开始作为表示愚蠢或傻的词汇,而其贬义的内涵也是从那时候开始越来越浓重的。“nice”一词携带了各种不太好的感情色彩,包括“淫乱”、“放纵”、“卖弄”、“好色”、“懦弱”、“懒惰”等含义。举个毛栗子:“提奥巴杜斯,你害怕黑死病这种事儿是很nice的。”

“Toxic”来源于中古拉丁文toxicus,在17世纪中期首次出现在英语里,在过去一年还被用来描述工作场所、学校、人际关系、文化和压力。

Corbyn engaged with the UK's foremost grime artists and spoke about topics such as housing and social justice in an attempt to woo younger voters - previously disengaged in politics - into voting for him.

9159com金沙网站 3

▍生词好句

Dive deeper into the Middle Ages, and the meaning deflated。 The word started to hint not at ostentation or cowardice but shyness and reserve; not in a negative way, but certainly not yet positively。 Let‘s call it neutral。 Like, “Baignard’s goat is nice。”

It said the #MeToo movement "put the spotlight on toxic masculinity" while in politics the word has been applied to the "rhetoric, policies, agendas and legacies of leaders and governments around the globe."

英国工党领袖科尔宾(Corbyn)和英国一流的伦敦地下音乐人( foremost grime artists )交谈,讨论有关住房和社会公平等话题,试图赢得那些先前不参与政治(woo younger voters)的年轻人的选票。

图片源于网络

lexicon /ˈlɛksɪk(ə)n/: n. 词典;词汇表

对中世纪挖掘得再深一点,会发现这个词的意义缩水了。它不再有“卖弄”或“懦弱”的意思,而开始表示“羞怯”或“保守”;不算是贬义,但也绝对还没变成褒义词。我们就说它是个中性词吧,例如:“柏格纳德的山羊很nice。”

《牛津词典》表示,“我也是”(MeToo)运动让人们关注到“有毒的男性气概”。而在政界,这一词汇用来形容“某些领导人和政府的花言巧语、政策、议题和政治遗产”。

This demographic overwhelming backed Corbyn, leading to seat gains such as Canterbury - a town with a large student group, but which had a 185-year period of always electing Conservative-allied MPs.

2. surreal(超现实)*(Merriam-Webster韦氏词典)*(

lexicography /ˌlɛksɪˈkɒɡrəfi/: n. 词典编纂学

Folks in the 17th and 18th centuries, though, they loved modesty。 (Just consider the clothes。) And as a result, “nice” began to take on a more positive tone。 As Oxford points out, “nice” started to connote respectability and virtue, refined taste and polite mannerisms。 Like, “Cornelia‘s lofty neckline and bulbous skirt are nice。”

However, the word was most associated with the word “chemical”, appearing most frequently in discussions about the environment, including “toxic substance”, “toxic gas”, “toxic waste” and “toxic air”.

这部分人群(demographic 愿意指人群)一边倒(overwhelming 势不可挡地)支持(backed    !!!back指支持啊啊啊!我还以为反对呢)科尔宾,最终助他赢得了坎特伯雷等选区的席位(seat gains)。拥有庞大学生群体的坎特伯雷在过去长达185年的时间里选举出的一直都是保守党一方的议员(Conservative-allied MPs.)

The Word of the Year for 2016 is surreal, with lookups of the word spiking for different reasons over the course of the year. Beginning with the Brussels terror attacks in March, major spikes included the days following the coup attempt in Turkey and the terrorist attack in Nice, with the largest spike in lookups for surreal following the U.S. election in November.

go with: 顺应 (本意:与……相配)

然而,17世纪和18世纪的人喜欢低调(想想他们的衣服就秒懂了)。因此,“nice”这个词开始出现了更为褒义的调调。正如牛津词典指出的,“nice”开始意指“高尚”和“美德”、“雅致的品味”及“礼貌的举止”。例如:“科妮莉娅的高领装和蓬蓬裙很nice。”

然而,这个词汇应用最广泛的含义还是“化学的”,它最频繁地出现在有关环境的讨论中,比如“有毒物”、“毒气”、“有毒废料”和“有毒的空气”。

Another, "Milkshake Duck", is something which "initially inspires delight on social media but is soon revealed to have a distasteful or repugnant past".

“surreal”成为韦氏词典2016年度词汇,与布鲁塞尔恐怖袭击、土耳其政变、尼斯恐怖袭击有关。在11月特朗普赢得美国总统大选之后,“surreal”的查询量达到最高。

in recognition of: 对……的表彰

By the 19th century, use of the word “nice” was not only loaded with a history of confusing meanings, it was also so ubiquitously tossed about Jane Austen had to pen a quippy bit of dialogue about it。 In 1817‘s Northanger Abbey, character Henry Tilney gently chastises Catherine Morland for her overuse of the word:

The debate fostered by the Brexit vote has also been described as a toxic environment, said the dictionary, while social media platforms “have come under fire for the toxic impact they have on our mental health”.

另一个代表性词汇“奶昔鸭(Milkshake Duck)”指的是某人或某物“最初在社交媒体上讨人喜欢(delight受人喜欢有点怪哈哈,讨人喜欢是中文常用的词汇)但很快9159com金沙网站:年度词汇出炉,究竟有什么用途。被发现(revealed to )不堪(distasteful令人不快)或令人厌恶的过往”。

The definition of surreal is: “marked by the intense irrational reality of a dream.” It’s a relatively new word in English, only dating back to the 1930s, derived from descriptions of the artistic movement of the early 1900s known as surrealism.

activism /ˈaktɪvɪz(ə)m/: n. 社会运动

到19世纪,“nice”一词不仅因为历史原因具备了诸多令人迷惑的含义,而且它无所不在,随处可用,以至于简·奥斯汀也不得不为此写了一段俏皮的对话。在1817年的《诺桑觉寺》中,亨利·提尔尼就温和地批评了凯瑟琳·莫兰对这个词的滥用:

《牛津词典》表示,英国脱欧公投引发的讨论也被形容为“有毒的环境”,社交媒体平台也因为“对人们的心理健康产生的‘有毒的影响’而遭到抨击”。

"Kompromat", a Russian word originally based on the English phrase "compromising material", means material used to blackmail or manipulate someone for political purposes.

“surreal”的意思是现实像梦境一样具有强烈的不合理性。

suffrage /ˈsʌfrɪdʒ/: n. 选举权

“And this is a very nice day; and we are taking a very nice walk; and you are two very nice young ladies,” he jests。 “Oh, it is a very nice word, indeed! It does for everything。”

Last year's word of the year was 'youthquake', defined as ‘a significant cultural, political, or social change arising from the actions or influence of young people.’

“污点材料”(Kompromat败坏他人名声的材料)这个俄罗斯词语源于英文短语compromising material,意思是出于政治目的(for 这个for翻译成出于真的太棒啦,出于……目的political purposes.)用于敲诈或操控某人(manipulate someone)的材料。

9159com金沙网站 4

denounce /dɪˈnaʊns/: vt. 谴责

他戏谑道:“今天是个很nice的日子,我们正在很nice地散步,你们是两位很nice的女士。哦,那真的是一个很nice的词!它哪里都能用!”

去年,《牛津词典》选择的年度词汇是“青年冲击”,指的是“年轻人的行为或影响带来的重要的文化、政治或社会变化”。

Others were more light-hearted. "Gorpcore", meaning the trend for wearing functional, outdoorsy clothing, also made the list, alongside "unicorn", referring to the trend for dousing anything from lattes to bagels in rainbow colours and glitter.

图片源于网络

sexual harassment /ˈharəsm(ə)nt, həˈrasm(ə)nt/: 性骚扰

Fast forward to today, and “nice” is still everywhere。 Sure, “nice” tends to mean kind, pleasing, polite and friendly, but it can also still mean something along the lines of “socially acceptable” or even “harmless。” Toss a “too” in front of it, and “nice” resembles its earlier definitions: ostentatious or extravagant。 Pop an “I guess” after it, and “nice” sounds like a full-fledged neg。 Elongate the “I” in it, and “niiice” becomes a knee-jerk response of an adverb like OK。

Last week?Collins Dictionary?chose the term “single-use”, referring to products made to be used once and then thrown away, as its word of the year.

其他一些代表词就轻松一些(light-hearted. )。“户外运动风(Gorpcore)”指的是穿着功能性户外服装的潮流,“独角兽风”指的是把所有东西,从拿铁咖啡(lattes)百吉面包圈(bagels),都装饰得(dousing )五颜六色亮晶晶(rainbow colours and glitter.)。

3. Xenophobia(仇外)Dictionary.com)(

complicit /kəmˈplɪsɪt/: adj. 串通的

快进到今天,“nice”依然随处可见。当然,“nice”可以表示“善良的”、“令人愉悦的”、“礼貌的”、“友好的”,但它也还是保留着“社会上普遍接受的”甚至是“无害的”的内涵。在前面加个“too”,它就有了先前的定义:“卖弄的”或“放纵的”。在后面加个“I guess”,“nice”这个词听起来就完全是贬义的了。把中间“i”的音拖长变成“niiice”呢,它就成了一声随口应答,就像“OK”那样。

上周,《柯林斯词典》选择“一次性的”作为其年度词汇,指的是用后即弃的一次性产品。

Xenophobia成为Dictionary.com的2016年度词汇,与南非发生的袭击外籍劳工事件、英国脱欧、美国大选有关。

youthquake /ˈjuːθkweɪk/: n. 年轻震荡

Basically, the meaninglessness of “nice” is just as confusing as ever。 We seem to use the word whenever we don‘t know what else to say。 Because, well, it works。

Cakeism 蛋糕主义

Dictionary.com defines xenophobia as “fear or hatred of foreigners, people from different cultures, or strangers.” It can also refer to fear or dislike of customs, dress, and cultures of people with backgrounds different from our own.

allegedly /əˈlɛdʒɪdli/: adv. 据称

基本上,“nice”这个词没有什么确定的意义,像从前一样令人迷惑。我们好像只要不知道还能再说什么,就用上这个词——因为,嗯,它就是这么好用。

Primarily a word used in the UK, cakeism is the belief that it is possible to enjoy or take advantage of both of two desirable but mutually exclusive alternatives at once.

xenophobia意思是对外国人、来自不同文化的人以及陌生人的恐惧和憎恨,还可以是指对于背景不同于自己的人们的传统、服饰和文化充满恐惧和厌恶。

spot /spɒt/: vt. 瞥见

责任编辑:王淳

主要在英国使用,指的是相信有可能同时享受或利用到两种同样令人满意但又互斥的方案。

9159com金沙网站 5

go-to: adj. 最常使用的;最喜欢的

?

图片源于网络

riposte /rɪˈpɒst/: n. 反击

Gammon 腌猪腿

  1. Brexit (英国脱欧) (Collins Dictionary柯林斯词典)

Typically used in the UK as a derogatory term for an older middle-class white man whose face becomes flushed due to anger when expressing political (typically right-wing) opinions.

Brexit named word of the year by Collins Dictionary Widely used word to describe Britain's withdrawal from EU was a 'gift to headline writers everywhere,' says Collins.

主要在英国使用,是一个贬义词,指的是在表达政治观点(通常是右翼)时由于愤怒脸涨得通红的年龄较大的中年白人男性。

“Brexit”被选为柯林斯词典的2016年度词汇,当然与英国脱欧有关。

?

Gaslighting “煤气灯”

The action of manipulating someone by psychological means into accepting a false depiction of reality or doubting their own sanity.

通过心理手段让别人接受错误信息,或者怀疑自己失去理智,从而操控别人的行为。

Incel 非自愿独身者

Incel, short for ‘involuntarily celibate’, is used as a self-descriptor by members of an online subculture who typically deem themselves chronically unable to attract romantic or sexual partners. They hold views that are hostile towards to women and to men who are sexually active.

Incel是“非自愿独身者”的缩写,是网络上一些亚文化人群的自我描述用语。他们认为自己一直无法恋爱,也没有性伴侣。他们对女性和性生活活跃的男性都抱有敌视态度。

Orbiting 网魂不散

Orbiting is the action of abruptly withdrawing from direct communication with someone while still monitoring, and sometimes responding to, their activity on social media.

网魂不散指的是突然切断与某人的直接联系,但却又在社交媒体上关注、甚至有时回应某人的行为。

Overtourism 过度旅游

An excessive number of tourist visits to a popular destination or attraction, resulting in damage to the local environment and historical sites and in poorer quality of life for residents.

前往一个受欢迎的旅游目的地或景点的游客人数过多,导致当地环境和历史遗迹遭到破坏, 当地居民的生活质量下降。

Techlash 技术抵制

A strong and widespread negative reaction to the growing power and influence of large technology companies, particularly those based in Silicon Valley.

对大型科技公司日益增长的权力和影响的强烈且广泛的抵制,特别是对在硅谷的大公司。

本文由9159com金沙网站发布于教育资讯,转载请注明出处:9159com金沙网站:年度词汇出炉,究竟有什么用途

关键词:

上一篇:9159com金沙网站给具有就要出国的人警告,家长省

下一篇:没有了