It has announced "youthquake", referring to the rallying of young people by Jeremy Corbyn's Labour Party during the 2017 General Election, as its word of the year.
Lexicon Leaders: Words of the Year
How often do you use the word “nice”？ I have no idea how many times I physically utter the word “nice” in a single day， but I‘d guess it’s a lot。
2018 was toxic.
日前牛津词典宣布“青年震荡”被评为年度词汇(as its word of the year.作为年度词汇)。“青年震荡”指的是2017英国大选期间杰里米•科尔宾领导的工党拉拢年轻人(rallying)的行为。
- post-truth（后真相）（Oxford Dictionaries牛津词典**）（
① As December turns to January, dictionary-publishers and others name their words of the year.
The word saw a 400 percent increase in usage between 2016 and 2017, and "highlights the increased awareness of young people’s capacity to influence, and even drive, political change," it said.
After much discussion, debate, and research, the Oxford Dictionaries Word of the Year 2016 is post-truth– an adjective defined as ‘relating to or denoting circumstances in which objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief’.
② For 2017 Merriam-Webster, an American publisher, went with "feminism", in recognition of the activism of the Women's March and the #MeToo movement denouncing sexual harassment.
So： How can one word serve as the appropriate response to both impending doom and caffeine breaks？
That's the view of the esteemed?9159com金沙网站，Oxford Dictionaries. It has chosen the word as its annual "Word of the Year".
牛津词典称，该词在2016年至2017年间的使用率(increase in usage )增加了400%，而且“凸显出(highlights)人们更多地意识到年轻人影响甚至驱动政治变化的能力”。
③ Dictionary.com chose "complicit", much looked-up on its website after Ivanka Trump was asked if she was complicit in her father's actions as president.
Casper Grathwohl, president of Oxford Dictionaries, said youthquake had taken the top spot because it was a "rare political word that sounds a hopeful note”.
The concept of post-truthhas been in existence for the past decade, but Oxford Dictionaries has seen a spike in frequency this year in the context of the EU referendum in the United Kingdom and the presidential election in the United States. It has also become associated with a particular noun, in the phrase post-truth politics.
④ Oxford Dictionaries puzzled readers with "youthquake", a wave of enthusiasm allegedly spotted several times this year in British politics (though the word itself seems little-used).
According to lexicon history， “nice” has led an erratic existence。 Over the years， “nice” has meant everything from “lewd” to “coy” to “kind。” Oxford Dictionaries cruises through the meandering history of the word on its blog。
Defining the word as “poisonous”, Oxford said it had become a “descriptor for the year’s most talked about topics”. The dictionary pointed to a 45% rise in the number of times the word has been looked up on its website, and said it best captured “the ethos, mood, or preoccupations” of 2018.
牛津词典总裁卡斯帕•格拉斯沃说，‘青年震荡’居首(taken the top spot 处于第一位)是因为这是“罕见(rare)的一个让人燃起希望(sounds a hopeful 拥有希望)的政治词汇”。
⑤ Collins, another dictionary-publisher, went with "fake news", Donald Trump's go-to riposte to unwelcome press.
"Sometimes you pick a word as the Word of the Year because you recognize that it has arrived, but other times you pick one that is knocking at the door and you want to help usher in," he said.
⑥ Last to announce its choice is the American Dialect Society, which will do so on January 5th at its annual conference, being held in Salt Lake City.
The word “nice，” Oxford claims， has pretty negative roots in the Latin “nescius，” meaning “ignorant。” But it really took off in the 14th century as a term for something foolish or silly。 The negative connotations ballooned from there。 “Nice” was used to refer to a variety of less-than-great sentiments including wantonness， extravagance， ostentation， lasciviousness， cowardice and sloth。 Like， “Teobaldus， your fear of the Black Plague is nice。”
First appearing in English in the mid-17th century, from the medieval Latin toxicus, “toxic” has also been used to describe workplaces, schools, relationships, cultures and stress over the last year.
他说：“有时候你将某个词选为年度词汇是因为你意识到它已经到来，但有些时候你选择某个词汇则是因为它虽然尚在门口(knocking at the door 在敲门)，但你想把它迎进来(help usher in帮助进入)。”
⑦ It will also pick words it deems "most useful" and "most likely to succeed"—plus a "WTF word of the year".
Corbyn engaged with the UK's foremost grime artists and spoke about topics such as housing and social justice in an attempt to woo younger voters - previously disengaged in politics - into voting for him.
Dive deeper into the Middle Ages， and the meaning deflated。 The word started to hint not at ostentation or cowardice but shyness and reserve； not in a negative way， but certainly not yet positively。 Let‘s call it neutral。 Like， “Baignard’s goat is nice。”
It said the #MeToo movement "put the spotlight on toxic masculinity" while in politics the word has been applied to the "rhetoric, policies, agendas and legacies of leaders and governments around the globe."
英国工党领袖科尔宾(Corbyn)和英国一流的伦敦地下音乐人( foremost grime artists )交谈，讨论有关住房和社会公平等话题，试图赢得那些先前不参与政治(woo younger voters)的年轻人的选票。
lexicon /ˈlɛksɪk(ə)n/: n. 词典；词汇表
This demographic overwhelming backed Corbyn, leading to seat gains such as Canterbury - a town with a large student group, but which had a 185-year period of always electing Conservative-allied MPs.
lexicography /ˌlɛksɪˈkɒɡrəfi/: n. 词典编纂学
Folks in the 17th and 18th centuries， though， they loved modesty。 （Just consider the clothes。） And as a result， “nice” began to take on a more positive tone。 As Oxford points out， “nice” started to connote respectability and virtue， refined taste and polite mannerisms。 Like， “Cornelia‘s lofty neckline and bulbous skirt are nice。”
However, the word was most associated with the word “chemical”, appearing most frequently in discussions about the environment, including “toxic substance”, “toxic gas”, “toxic waste” and “toxic air”.
这部分人群(demographic 愿意指人群)一边倒(overwhelming 势不可挡地)地支持(backed ！！！back指支持啊啊啊！我还以为反对呢)科尔宾，最终助他赢得了坎特伯雷等选区的席位(seat gains)。拥有庞大学生群体的坎特伯雷在过去长达185年的时间里选举出的一直都是保守党一方的议员(Conservative-allied MPs.)。
The Word of the Year for 2016 is surreal, with lookups of the word spiking for different reasons over the course of the year. Beginning with the Brussels terror attacks in March, major spikes included the days following the coup attempt in Turkey and the terrorist attack in Nice, with the largest spike in lookups for surreal following the U.S. election in November.
go with: 顺应 (本意：与……相配)
Another, "Milkshake Duck", is something which "initially inspires delight on social media but is soon revealed to have a distasteful or repugnant past".
in recognition of: 对……的表彰
By the 19th century， use of the word “nice” was not only loaded with a history of confusing meanings， it was also so ubiquitously tossed about Jane Austen had to pen a quippy bit of dialogue about it。 In 1817‘s Northanger Abbey， character Henry Tilney gently chastises Catherine Morland for her overuse of the word：
The debate fostered by the Brexit vote has also been described as a toxic environment, said the dictionary, while social media platforms “have come under fire for the toxic impact they have on our mental health”.
另一个代表性词汇“奶昔鸭(Milkshake Duck)”指的是某人或某物“最初在社交媒体上讨人喜欢(delight受人喜欢有点怪哈哈，讨人喜欢是中文常用的词汇)但很快9159com金沙网站：年度词汇出炉，究竟有什么用途。被发现(revealed to )有不堪(distasteful令人不快)或令人厌恶的过往”。
The definition of surreal is: “marked by the intense irrational reality of a dream.” It’s a relatively new word in English, only dating back to the 1930s, derived from descriptions of the artistic movement of the early 1900s known as surrealism.
activism /ˈaktɪvɪz(ə)m/: n. 社会运动
"Kompromat", a Russian word originally based on the English phrase "compromising material", means material used to blackmail or manipulate someone for political purposes.
suffrage /ˈsʌfrɪdʒ/: n. 选举权
“And this is a very nice day； and we are taking a very nice walk； and you are two very nice young ladies，” he jests。 “Oh， it is a very nice word， indeed！ It does for everything。”
Last year's word of the year was 'youthquake', defined as ‘a significant cultural, political, or social change arising from the actions or influence of young people.’
“污点材料”(Kompromat败坏他人名声的材料)这个俄罗斯词语源于英文短语compromising material，意思是出于政治目的(for 这个for翻译成出于真的太棒啦，出于……目的political purposes.)用于敲诈或操控某人(manipulate someone)的材料。
denounce /dɪˈnaʊns/: vt. 谴责
Others were more light-hearted. "Gorpcore", meaning the trend for wearing functional, outdoorsy clothing, also made the list, alongside "unicorn", referring to the trend for dousing anything from lattes to bagels in rainbow colours and glitter.
sexual harassment /ˈharəsm(ə)nt, həˈrasm(ə)nt/: 性骚扰
Fast forward to today， and “nice” is still everywhere。 Sure， “nice” tends to mean kind， pleasing， polite and friendly， but it can also still mean something along the lines of “socially acceptable” or even “harmless。” Toss a “too” in front of it， and “nice” resembles its earlier definitions： ostentatious or extravagant。 Pop an “I guess” after it， and “nice” sounds like a full-fledged neg。 Elongate the “I” in it， and “niiice” becomes a knee-jerk response of an adverb like OK。
Last week?Collins Dictionary?chose the term “single-use”, referring to products made to be used once and then thrown away, as its word of the year.
其他一些代表词就轻松一些(light-hearted. )。“户外运动风(Gorpcore)”指的是穿着功能性户外服装的潮流，“独角兽风”指的是把所有东西，从拿铁咖啡(lattes)到百吉面包圈(bagels)，都装饰得(dousing )五颜六色亮晶晶(rainbow colours and glitter.)。
complicit /kəmˈplɪsɪt/: adj. 串通的
youthquake /ˈjuːθkweɪk/: n. 年轻震荡
Basically， the meaninglessness of “nice” is just as confusing as ever。 We seem to use the word whenever we don‘t know what else to say。 Because， well， it works。
Dictionary.com defines xenophobia as “fear or hatred of foreigners, people from different cultures, or strangers.” It can also refer to fear or dislike of customs, dress, and cultures of people with backgrounds different from our own.
allegedly /əˈlɛdʒɪdli/: adv. 据称
Primarily a word used in the UK, cakeism is the belief that it is possible to enjoy or take advantage of both of two desirable but mutually exclusive alternatives at once.
spot /spɒt/: vt. 瞥见
go-to: adj. 最常使用的；最喜欢的
riposte /rɪˈpɒst/: n. 反击
- Brexit （英国脱欧） （Collins Dictionary柯林斯词典)
Typically used in the UK as a derogatory term for an older middle-class white man whose face becomes flushed due to anger when expressing political (typically right-wing) opinions.
Brexit named word of the year by Collins Dictionary Widely used word to describe Britain's withdrawal from EU was a 'gift to headline writers everywhere,' says Collins.
The action of manipulating someone by psychological means into accepting a false depiction of reality or doubting their own sanity.
Incel, short for ‘involuntarily celibate’, is used as a self-descriptor by members of an online subculture who typically deem themselves chronically unable to attract romantic or sexual partners. They hold views that are hostile towards to women and to men who are sexually active.
Orbiting is the action of abruptly withdrawing from direct communication with someone while still monitoring, and sometimes responding to, their activity on social media.
An excessive number of tourist visits to a popular destination or attraction, resulting in damage to the local environment and historical sites and in poorer quality of life for residents.
A strong and widespread negative reaction to the growing power and influence of large technology companies, particularly those based in Silicon Valley.