文章标题：Autumn leaves 秋天的叶子
The Oak Tree is the king of the Western trees: it has the majestic look with its large canopy top and a straight upward-growing trunk. Oaks are deciduous, meaning their leaves bloom and wither with the whim of seasons. .
Alien life might be purple.
A段 词性 解释
captivating a. 迷人的，有魅力的
magnificent a. 华丽的
chlorophyll n. 叶绿素
molecule n. 分子
hemisphere n. 半球
evergreen a. 常绿的
conifer n. 针叶林
photosynthesis n. 光合作用
redundant a. 多余的
precious a. 珍贵的
dismantle v. 拆除
valuable a. 有价值的
nitrogen n. 氮
unmask a. 揭露
maple n. 枫树
sumac n. 漆树
anthocyanin n. 花青素
spectrum n. 光谱
flavonoid n. 黄酮类
mint v. 铸造
tolerance n. 容忍
outweigh v. 超过
anti-herbivore a. 抗蚜的
Anti-fungal a. 抗菌的
insect n. 害虫
robust a. 强健的
defense n. 防卫
duller a. 呆滞的
paradox n. 悖论
supreme a. 最高的
pigment n. 色素
salvage v. 抢救
exquisite a. 精致的
overwhelm v. 淹没，压倒
nutrient a. 营养的
deficiency n. 缺陷
oversensitivity n. 过敏
vulnerable a. 易受伤害的
suspect v. 怀疑
clue n. 线索
spectacular a. 壮观的 5. 题型分析：文章题型由三个题型组成：单项选择题 句子配对题 判断题，都是细节题型。
When spring comes, new leaves and new branches bud from scales on the sturdy old branches, and that announces the onset of the cycle: growing. Growing needs energy. Photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide and sunlight absorbed by chlorophyll in the leaves, into sugar - its own energy source. The sugar is passed down through the phloem in the trunk, to “feed” the whole tree and make all parts grow. Roots grow sideways to form a deep, broad root system, which functions to absorb water and minerals in the soil. The water and minerals then get transported up by the xylem to the leaves, where the photosynthesis process needs water as an essential input.
▲ the study of fossils as a way of getting information about the history of life on Earth and the structure of rocks
Oak trees self pollinate, or in another word, they produce both female flower and male flowers. The seeds - the acorns, looking like Mr. Potato-head wearing an upside-down scale-skinned bowl, start to develop in those low-profile female flowers nestled among the leaves. Acorns will take one to two years to mature before they fall off the parent tree.
▲ a bone, a shell or the shape of a plant or animal which has been preserved in rock for a very long period
▲ [informal] [humorous] an old person, especially one who will not accept new ideas
That's the conclusion of a new research paper that suggests that the first life on Earth might have had a lavender hue. In the?International Journal of Astrobiology, microbiologist Shiladitya DasSarma of the University of Maryland School of Medicine and postdoctoral researcher Edward Schwieterman at the University of California, Riverside, argue that before green plants started harnessing the power of the sun for energy, tiny purple organisms figured out a way to do the same.
Questions 14-18 段落信息配对题
In summer, photosynthesis is fueled up by stronger sunlight and more rapid hydraulic cycles in hot temperatures. The tree increases in height, the trunk grows thicker and greener leaves cloud the tree top.
▲ [T] to reduce something, such as a speech or piece of writing, in length
I condensed ten pages of comments into/to two.
▲ [T] to make a liquid thicker by removing some of the water
▲ [I or T] to change or make something change from a gas to a liquid or solid state
* Water vapour in the air condenses into fog.*
- a description of the substance responsible for the red colouration
题解：题目的意思是一种对叶子产生红色的物质的描述，定位在C段首句：the source of the red is widely known: it is created by anthocyanin,所以答案选择C。
- the reason why trees drop their leaves in autumn
题解：题干定位drop leaves in autumn在B段第六行：the tree saves its precious resources and discards them 树节省了资源并且把他们丢弃，所以选择B。
- some evidence to confirm a theory about the purpose of the red
题解：题目的意思是证明红叶目的的理论证据，出现在H段第二行：there are clues out there.所以选择H。
- an explanation of the function of chlorophyll
题解：题目的意思是对叶绿素功能的解释，定位在B段第一行：the molecule that captures sunlight and converts that energy into new building materials for the tree，的意思是一种分子用来捕捉阳光并转变成树木成长所需的能量。所以选择B。
- a suggestion that the red colouration in leaves could serve as a
题解：定位在E段第二行：they are healthy and robust and would be easily able to mount chemical defences against infestation，树木是健康和强健的并且能轻松分泌出化学物质来抵抗感染。所以选择E。
Questions 19-22 句子填空题
The most vividly colored red leaves are found on the side of the tree facing the 19.
题解：题目定位most vividely在原文H段第三行the reddest, 所以答案填sun。
The 20 surfaces of leaves contain the most red pigment.
题解：题目定位the most red pigment在原文H段第四行the red is brighter,所以答案填upper。
Red leaves are most abundant when daytime weather conditions are 21 and sunny.
题解：题目定位and sunny在原文H段第五行intense red colors are dry, sunny days and cool nights,所以答案填dry。
The intensity of the red color of leaves increases as you go further 22.
题解：题目定位increases在原文H段倒数第三行get much redder the more north，所以答案填north。
- it is likely that the red pigments help to protect the leaf from
题解：题目定位在D段第三行increases a leaf’s tolerance to freezing. However there are problems with each of these theories.的意思是增加叶子抵抗寒冷的能力，但是这些理论有很多问题，所以答案选FALSE。
- the ‘light screen’ hypothesis would initially seem to contradict
what is known about chlorophyll.
题解：题目定位在F段第三行it sounds paradoxical, paradoxical替换contradict所以选择TRUE。
- leaves which turn colors other than red are more likely to be
damaged by sunlight.
Questions 26 单选题
For which of the following questions does the writer offer an explanation?
A why conifers remain green in winter
B how leaves turn orange and yellow in autumn
C how herbivorous insects choose which trees to lay their eggs in
D why anthocyanins are restricted to certain trees
题解：答案选B，定位在B段最后一句this unmasking explains the autumn colours of yellow and orange,这个解释揭露了叶子在秋天变黄变橙。
That lush blossom fades as the fall sneaks in: the leaves loses its green since they stop making chlorophyll in autumn, but puts on more red, orange and bronze thanks to the carotenoids and anthocyanins produced in them. Winter will see the whole tree falls asleep with bare branches - waiting for life to revive in the next spring. Oak Trees can live through some 600 such annual cycles.
▲ between the stars
Alien life could be thriving in the same way, DasSarma said.
Many people tend to think that the Earth is a sphere. In fact, its shape is similar to a sphere, but where the poles are flattened and the equator bulges. This bulge is due to our planet's rotation. This means that the measurement from pole to pole is about 43 km less than the diameter of Earth across the equator.
▲ [ Ior T] to move into or through something
Amazingly, the bullet did not penetrate his brain.
▲ [T] If your eyes penetrate somewhere dark, you manage to see through it
* Our eyes couldn't penetrate the dark/the gloom of the inner cave.*
▲ [N] a level of material, such as a type of rock or gas, which is different from the material above or below it, or a thin sheet of a substance
the ozone layer
▲ [V] to arrange something in layers
* Layer the pasta with slices of tomato.*
"Astronomers have discovered thousands of new extrasolar planets recently and are developing the capacity to see surface biosignatures" in the light reflected from these planets, he told Live Science. There are already ways to detect green life from space, he said, but scientists might need to start looking for purple, too.?
▲ a large pile of earth, stones, etc. like a small hill
* a burial mound(= a place where people were buried in ancient times)*
▲ a large pile of something
a mound of potatoes/papers
▲ [BASEBALL] [US] the raised area in baseball from which the pitcher throws the ball
9159com金沙网站，▲ the process by which a plant uses the energy from the light of the sun to produce its own food
▲ [N] when someone performs or presents something to the public for the first time
She made her professional stage debut in Swan Lake.
▲ [V] to perform or be introduced to the public for the first time
* The programme debuted last year to great acclaim.*
The idea that the early Earth was purple is not new, DasSarma and his colleagues advanced the theory in 2007. The thinking goes like this: Plants and photosynthesizing algae use chlorophyll to absorb energy from the sun, but they don't absorb green light. That's odd, because green light is energy-rich. Perhaps, DasSarma and his colleagues reasoned, something else was already using that part of the spectrum when chlorophyll photosynthesizers evolved.
The lowest point on land is relatively accessible. It's the Dead Sea between Jordan, Israel and the West Bank. The surface of this super-salty lake is 1,388 feet below sea level.
▲ a single living plant, animal, virus, etc
Amoebae and bacteria are single-celled organisms.
▲ very interesting because of being unusual or mysterious
an intriguing possibility/question
That "something else" would be simple organisms that captured solar energy with a molecule called retinal. Retinal pigments absorb green light best. They're not as efficient as chlorophylls in capturing solar energy, but they are simpler, the researchers wrote in their new paper.
▲ [C] a long strip or large area especially of land
Huge swathes of rainforest are being cleared for farming and mining.
▲ a type of black rock that comes from a volcano
Retinal light-harvesting is still widespread today among bacteria and the single-celled organisms called Archaea. These purple organisms have been discovered everywhere from the oceans to the Antarctic Dry Valley to the surfaces of leaves, Schwieterman told Live Science. Retinal pigments are also found in the visual system of more complex animals.
▲ hot liquid rock which comes out of the Earth through a volcano or the solid rock formed when it cools
molten lava 熔岩
It used to be purple … well, life on early Earth may have been just as purple as it is green today, suspects Shil DasSarma, a microbial geneticist at the University of Maryland. Ancient microbes, he said, might have used a molecule other than chlorophyll to harness the sun's rays, one that gave the organisms a violet hue, he suggests.
▲ a large rock or group of rocks that sticks out of the ground
The appearance of the pigments across many living organisms hints that they may have evolved very early on, in ancestors common to many branches of the tree of life, the researchers wrote. There is even some evidence that modern purple-pigmented salt-loving organisms called halophiles might be related to some of the earliest life on Earth, which thrived around methane vents in the ocean, Schwieterman said.
▲ the careful and detailed examination of something in order to get information about it
The Government's record will be subjected to/come under (close) scrutiny in the weeks before the election.
▲ a hard colourless mineral substance, used in making electronic equipment and accurate watches and clocks
▲ [C] a tube that carries blood to the heart from the other parts of the body
▲ [C] the frame of a leaf or an insect's wing
Regardless of whether the first life on Earth was purple, it's clear that lavender life suits some organisms just fine, Schwieterman and DasSarma argue in their new paper. That means that alien life could be using the same strategy. And if alien life is using retinal pigments to capture energy, astrobiologists will find them only by looking for particular light signatures, they wrote.
▲ a small raised area or swelling
There was a soft nodule on my vocal cord.
Earth's atmosphere is thickest within the first 50 km from the surface or so, but it actually reaches out to about 10,000 km into space. It is made up of five main layers – the Troposphere, the Stratosphere, the Mesosphere, the Thermosphere, and the Exosphere. As a rule, air pressure and density decrease the higher one goes into the atmosphere and the farther one is from the surface.
▲ 0.000 001 of a metre（微米）
Chlorophyll, Schwieterman said, absorbs mostly red and blue light. But the spectrum reflected from a plant-covered planet displays what astrobiologists call a "vegetation red edge." This "red edge" is a sudden change in the reflection of light at the near-infrared part of the spectrum, where plants suddenly stop absorbing red wavelengths and start reflecting them away.
▲ a flower-shaped decorative object cut into wood or stone, or one made of ribbon(= narrow silk strips)worn as a sign that you support a particular team or political party or that you have won a race, etc
The winning horse had a rosette fixed to its bridle.
▲ having a hole or empty space inside
a hollow tube
▲ hollow cheeks/eyes
If someone has hollow cheeks or eyes, their cheeks curve in or their eyes look deep in their head because they are old, tired, or ill.
Retinal-based photosynthesizers, on the other hand, have a "green edge," Schwieterman said. They absorb light up to the green portion of the spectrum, and then start reflecting longer wavelengths away.
▲ (the length of) a straight line that reaches from one point on the edge of a round shape or object, through its centre, to a point on the opposite edge
The diameter measures twice the radius.
▲ a common dark red or grey rock from which iron is obtained
Astrobiologists have long been intrigued by the possibility of detecting extraterrestrial life by detecting the "red edge," Schwieterman said, but they may need to consider searching for the "green edge," too.
It actually takes 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4 seconds for the Earth to rotate once completely on its axis, which astronomers refer to as a Sidereal Day. But the Earth orbits around the Sun. Every day, the Sun moves compared to the background stars by about 1° – about the size of the Moon in the sky. And so, if you add up that little motion from the Sun that we see because the Earth is orbiting around it, as well as the rotation on its axis, you get a total of 24 hours.This is what is known as a Solar Day, which – contrary to a Sidereal Day – is the amount of time it takes the Sun to return to the same place in the sky.
▲ how steep a slope is
a steep/gentle gradient
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9159com金沙网站：甘比精读，剑桥雅思10TEST3。26. iron oxide
"If these organisms were present in sufficient densities on an exoplanet, those reflection properties would be imprinted on that planet's reflected light spectrum," he said.
▲ a thin thread or fibre of natural or artificial material
Tooth brushes should be replaced when the filaments become worn.
▲ a thin wire, especially one which lights up inside an electric light bulb
* a tungsten filament*
▲ [I orT] to lower an anchor into the water in order to stop a boat from moving away
▲ [T]to make something or someone stays in one position by fastening them firmly
* We anchored ourselves to the rocks with a rope.*
The southern continent is a place of extremes, with the Antarctic ice cap containing some 70 percent of Earth's fresh water and about 90 percent of its ice, even though it is only the fifth largest continent. Did you know Antarctica is actually considered a desert? Inner regions get just 2 inches (50 millimeters) of precipitation a year (typically as snow, of course).
▲ when two people or things look like each other or are similar in some other way
There was a clear family resemblance between all the brothers.
▲ [BED] a small bed for a baby, especially one that swings from side to side
The nurse rocked the cradle.
▲ [TELEPHONE] the object that you put a mobile phone, camera, PDA, etc. into in order to recharge(= put power into)its batteries or connect it to a computer
▲ UK(US scaffold)a frame which hangs on the side of a building, ship, etc. for people to work from
▲ the cradle of sth
the place where something started
Fossil records indicate that Africa was the cradle of early human evolution.
▲from (the) cradle to (the) grave
for all of a person's life
She lived in the same village from the cradle to the grave.
▲[saying]The hand that rocks the cradle (rules the world).
said to emphasise that women have a strong influence on events through their children
▲ having battlements(= castle walls with regular spaces along the top)
▲ relating to the structure of the surface of the Earth and the way it is formed, changed and moved by forces inside it
the motion of Earth's tectonic plates(= sections of the planet's surface)
▲ a small piece or amount of something that is left from a larger original piece or amount
the remnants of last night's meal
Coral reefs support the most species per unit area of any of the planet's ecosystems, rivaling rain forests. And while they are made up of tiny coral polyps, together coral reefs are the largest living structures on Earth — a community of connected organisms — with some visible even from space, according to NOAA.
Day12 神句翻译 思维导图
- The team contends that / these bear more than a passing resemblance to the networks of bacteria (that live in hydrothermal vents--towering, crenellated structures (that form in the deep ocean above the boundaries between tectonic plates, [where superheated mineral-laden water spurts up from beneath the seabed])).
该团队认为,这些和生活在深海热泉的细菌群落极为相似----深海热泉指的是:深海中构造板块交界边缘上方高耸锯齿型的部分,富含矿物质的水从海底喷涌而出。Bear more than a passing resemblance to: passing指的是过关，及格线，more than a passing resemblance指远超及格线，非常相似。
这句句子结构相当复杂，从句套从句，还是提醒大家牢记就近原则，但是最后一个where打头的从句，前面一个逗号与破折号之间的部分是修饰hydrothermal vents的插入语，所以where修饰的也是hydrothermal vents。大家可以再仔细体会一下。
- Such a find is doubly intriguing because hydrothermal vents are seen as a plausible candidate for the cradle of life.
Plausible:有两种意思，一个偏褒义，另一个偏贬义，此处指appearingworthy of belief：eg. the argument was both powerful and plausible褒义
- Although the sorts of bacteria apparently found by Dr. Papineau and his colleagues are too complicated to reveal much about the very earliest organisms, the suggestion that hydrothermal vents have played host to life for so long is a strike in the theory’s favour.
Too....to...太......以致不能......You are too young to drive.你太年轻，还不能开车。
the living is easy