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原标题:9159com金沙网站:甘比精读,剑桥雅思10TEST3

浏览次数:106 时间:2019-05-05

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了解地球

  1. 难度分析:难

  2. 文章标题:Autumn leaves 秋天的叶子

  3. 文章话题:生物类

  4. 词汇准备:

The Oak Tree is the king of the Western trees: it has the majestic look with its large canopy top and a straight upward-growing trunk. Oaks are deciduous, meaning their leaves bloom and wither with the whim of seasons. .

Day11 单词作业

Alien life might be purple.

先从那些你不知道的地球冷知识开始吧~

A段 词性 解释
captivating a. 迷人的,有魅力的
magnificent a. 华丽的
B段
chlorophyll n. 叶绿素
molecule n. 分子
hemisphere n. 半球
evergreen a. 常绿的
conifer n. 针叶林
photosynthesis n. 光合作用
redundant a. 多余的
precious a. 珍贵的
dismantle v. 拆除
valuable a. 有价值的
nitrogen n. 氮
unmask a. 揭露
maple n. 枫树
sumac n. 漆树
C段
anthocyanin n. 花青素
spectrum n. 光谱
flavonoid n. 黄酮类
mint v. 铸造
D段
tolerance n. 容忍
outweigh v. 超过
anti-herbivore a. 抗蚜的
Anti-fungal a. 抗菌的
E段
insect n. 害虫
robust a. 强健的
defense n. 防卫
duller a. 呆滞的
F段
paradox n. 悖论
supreme a. 最高的
pigment n. 色素
salvage v. 抢救
G段
exquisite a. 精致的
overwhelm v. 淹没,压倒
nutrient a. 营养的
deficiency n. 缺陷
oversensitivity n. 过敏
vulnerable a. 易受伤害的
H段
suspect v. 怀疑
clue n. 线索
I段
spectacular a. 壮观的 5. 题型分析:文章题型由三个题型组成:单项选择题 句子配对题 判断题,都是细节题型。

When spring comes, new leaves and new branches bud from scales on the sturdy old branches, and that announces the onset of the cycle: growing. Growing needs energy. Photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide and sunlight absorbed by chlorophyll in the leaves, into sugar - its own energy source. The sugar is passed down through the phloem in the trunk, to “feed” the whole tree and make all parts grow. Roots grow sideways to form a deep, broad root system, which functions to absorb water and minerals in the soil. The water and minerals then get transported up by the xylem to the leaves, where the photosynthesis process needs water as an essential input.

1. palaeontology

▲ the study of fossils as a way of getting information about the history of life on Earth and the structure of rocks

外星生命也许是紫色的。

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  1. 题目解析:

Oak trees self pollinate, or in another word, they produce both female flower and male flowers. The seeds - the acorns, looking like Mr. Potato-head wearing an upside-down scale-skinned bowl, start to develop in those low-profile female flowers nestled among the leaves. Acorns will take one to two years to mature before they fall off the parent tree.

2. fossil

▲ a bone, a shell or the shape of a plant or animal which has been preserved in rock for a very long period

▲ [informal] [humorous] an old person, especially one who will not accept new ideas

That's the conclusion of a new research paper that suggests that the first life on Earth might have had a lavender hue. In the?International Journal of Astrobiology, microbiologist Shiladitya DasSarma of the University of Maryland School of Medicine and postdoctoral researcher Edward Schwieterman at the University of California, Riverside, argue that before green plants started harnessing the power of the sun for energy, tiny purple organisms figured out a way to do the same.

地球不是圆的

Questions 14-18 段落信息配对题

In summer, photosynthesis is fueled up by stronger sunlight and more rapid hydraulic cycles in hot temperatures. The tree increases in height, the trunk grows thicker and greener leaves cloud the tree top.

3. condense

▲ [T] to reduce something, such as a speech or piece of writing, in length

    I condensed ten pages of comments into/to two.

▲ [T] to make a liquid thicker by removing some of the water

▲ [I or T] to change or make something change from a gas to a liquid or solid state

*    Water vapour in the air condenses into fog.*

这是一篇新研究论文的结论。这篇论文指出,地球上最早的生命可能拥有薰衣草的颜色。马里兰大学医学院微生物学家希拉迪蒂亚·达斯萨尔马和加利福尼亚大学里弗赛德分校博士后研究员爱德华·施维特曼在《国际天体生物学杂志》上发表论文指出,在绿色植物开始吸收太阳光以获取能量之前,微小的紫色生物体就已经在这么做了。

许多人认为地球是一个球体。事实上,其形状类似于球体,但两极是扁平的,赤道是凸出的,这个凸起是由于地球的自转造成的。这意味着从一极到另一极的测量距离大约比地球穿过赤道的直径小43公里。

  1. a description of the substance responsible for the red colouration of leaves
    题解:题目的意思是一种对叶子产生红色的物质的描述,定位在C段首句:the source of the red is widely known: it is created by anthocyanin,所以答案选择C。
  2. the reason why trees drop their leaves in autumn
    题解:题干定位drop leaves in autumn在B段第六行:the tree saves its precious resources and discards them 树节省了资源并且把他们丢弃,所以选择B。
  3. some evidence to confirm a theory about the purpose of the red leaves
    题解:题目的意思是证明红叶目的的理论证据,出现在H段第二行:there are clues out there.所以选择H。
  4. an explanation of the function of chlorophyll
    题解:题目的意思是对叶绿素功能的解释,定位在B段第一行:the molecule that captures sunlight and converts that energy into new building materials for the tree,的意思是一种分子用来捕捉阳光并转变成树木成长所需的能量。所以选择B。
  5. a suggestion that the red colouration in leaves could serve as a warning signal
    题解:定位在E段第二行:they are healthy and robust and would be easily able to mount chemical defences against infestation,树木是健康和强健的并且能轻松分泌出化学物质来抵抗感染。所以选择E。
    Questions 19-22 句子填空题
    The most vividly colored red leaves are found on the side of the tree facing the 19.
    题解:题目定位most vividely在原文H段第三行the reddest, 所以答案填sun。
    The 20 surfaces of leaves contain the most red pigment.
    题解:题目定位the most red pigment在原文H段第四行the red is brighter,所以答案填upper。
    Red leaves are most abundant when daytime weather conditions are 21 and sunny.
    题解:题目定位and sunny在原文H段第五行intense red colors are dry, sunny days and cool nights,所以答案填dry。
    The intensity of the red color of leaves increases as you go further 22.
    题解:题目定位increases在原文H段倒数第三行get much redder the more north,所以答案填north。
    Questions 23-25判断题
  6. it is likely that the red pigments help to protect the leaf from freezing temperatures.
    题解:题目定位在D段第三行increases a leaf’s tolerance to freezing. However there are problems with each of these theories.的意思是增加叶子抵抗寒冷的能力,但是这些理论有很多问题,所以答案选FALSE。
  7. the ‘light screen’ hypothesis would initially seem to contradict what is known about chlorophyll.
    题解:题目定位在F段第三行it sounds paradoxical, paradoxical替换contradict所以选择TRUE。
  8. leaves which turn colors other than red are more likely to be damaged by sunlight.
    题解:原文没有找到相关信息,所以选择NOT GIVEN。
    Questions 26 单选题
    For which of the following questions does the writer offer an explanation?
    A why conifers remain green in winter
    B how leaves turn orange and yellow in autumn
    C how herbivorous insects choose which trees to lay their eggs in
    D why anthocyanins are restricted to certain trees
    题解:答案选B,定位在B段最后一句this unmasking explains the autumn colours of yellow and orange,这个解释揭露了叶子在秋天变黄变橙。

That lush blossom fades as the fall sneaks in: the leaves loses its green since they stop making chlorophyll in autumn, but puts on more red, orange and bronze thanks to the carotenoids and anthocyanins produced in them. Winter will see the whole tree falls asleep with bare branches - waiting for life to revive in the next spring. Oak Trees can live through some 600 such annual cycles.

4. interstellar

▲ between the stars

    ***interstellar* space

Alien life could be thriving in the same way, DasSarma said.

Many people tend to think that the Earth is a sphere. In fact, its shape is similar to a sphere, but where the poles are flattened and the equator bulges. This bulge is due to our planet's rotation. This means that the measurement from pole to pole is about 43 km less than the diameter of Earth across the equator.

5. penetrate

▲ [ Ior T] to move into or through something

    Amazingly, the bullet did not penetrate his brain.

▲ [T] If your eyes penetrate somewhere dark, you manage to see through it

*    Our eyes couldn't penetrate the dark/the gloom of the inner cave.*

达斯萨尔马说,外星生命可能会以同样的方式茁壮成长。

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6. layer

▲ [N] a level of material, such as a type of rock or gas, which is different from the material above or below it, or a thin sheet of a substance

    the ozone layer

▲ [V] to arrange something in layers

  Layer the pasta with slices of tomato.*

"Astronomers have discovered thousands of new extrasolar planets recently and are developing the capacity to see surface biosignatures" in the light reflected from these planets, he told Live Science. There are already ways to detect green life from space, he said, but scientists might need to start looking for purple, too.?

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7. mound

▲ a large pile of earth, stones, etc. like a small hill

*    a burial mound(= a place where people were buried in ancient times)*

▲ a large pile of something

    a mound of potatoes/papers

▲ [BASEBALL] [US] the raised area in baseball from which the pitcher throws the ball

他告诉趣味科学网站说,“天文学家最近发现了数千颗新的太阳系外行星,并且正在开发从这些行星反射出的光线中观察表面生物特征的能力”。他说,科学家已经有办法探测太空中的绿色生命,但或许他们还需要开始寻找紫色的生命。

死海是陆地的最低点

8. photosynthesis

9159com金沙网站,▲ the process by which a plant uses the energy from the light of the sun to produce its own food

紫色的地球

陆地上的最低点相对容易到达,即约旦、以色列和约旦河西岸之间的死海。这个超咸湖的表面低于海平面1388英尺。

9. debut

▲ [N] when someone performs or presents something to the public for the first time

    She made her professional stage debut in Swan Lake.

▲ [V] to perform or be introduced to the public for the first time

*    The programme debuted last year to great acclaim.*

The idea that the early Earth was purple is not new, DasSarma and his colleagues advanced the theory in 2007. The thinking goes like this: Plants and photosynthesizing algae use chlorophyll to absorb energy from the sun, but they don't absorb green light. That's odd, because green light is energy-rich. Perhaps, DasSarma and his colleagues reasoned, something else was already using that part of the spectrum when chlorophyll photosynthesizers evolved.

The lowest point on land is relatively accessible. It's the Dead Sea between Jordan, Israel and the West Bank. The surface of this super-salty lake is 1,388 feet below sea level.

10. organism

▲ a single living plant, animal, virus, etc

    Amoebae and bacteria are single-celled organisms.

关于早期地球是紫色的设想并不新鲜,达斯萨尔马和他的同事们在2007年就提出了这一假设。这种想法是这样的:植物和进行光合作用的藻类利用叶绿素吸收来自太阳的能量,但它们并不吸收绿光。这很奇怪,因为绿光富含能量。达斯萨尔马和他的同事们推断,也许,在叶绿素光合作用生物进化出现的时候,某种使用那部分光谱的其他生物体已经存在了。

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11. intriguing

▲ very interesting because of being unusual or mysterious

    an intriguing possibility/question

That "something else" would be simple organisms that captured solar energy with a molecule called retinal. Retinal pigments absorb green light best. They're not as efficient as chlorophylls in capturing solar energy, but they are simpler, the researchers wrote in their new paper.

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12. swathe

▲ [C] a long strip or large area especially of land

    Huge swathes of rainforest are being cleared for farming and mining.

这种“其他生物体”可能是通过一种被称为视黄醛的分子捕获太阳能量的简单生物体。视黄醛色素能够最大程度地吸收绿光。研究人员在新发表的论文中写道,视黄醛色素在获取太阳能量时的效率不如叶绿素,但它们更为简单。

地球曾经是紫色的

13. basalt

▲ a type of black rock that comes from a volcano

Retinal light-harvesting is still widespread today among bacteria and the single-celled organisms called Archaea. These purple organisms have been discovered everywhere from the oceans to the Antarctic Dry Valley to the surfaces of leaves, Schwieterman told Live Science. Retinal pigments are also found in the visual system of more complex animals.

马里兰大学的微生物遗传学家Shil DasSarma认为,今天地球上的生命是绿色的,但在早期可能是紫色的。他说,古代的微生物可能使用了叶绿素以外的分子来利用太阳光线,而正是这种分子赋予了生物体紫色的色彩。

14. lava

▲ hot liquid rock which comes out of the Earth through a volcano or the solid rock formed when it cools

    molten lava 熔岩

以视黄醛采集光能的方式今天在细菌和被称为“古细菌”的单细胞生物体中仍然十分普遍。施维特曼告诉美国趣味科学网站说,从海洋到南极洲干谷再到植物叶子表面,到处都发现过这种紫色生物体。视黄醛色素也存在于较为复杂的动物视觉系统中。

It used to be purple … well, life on early Earth may have been just as purple as it is green today, suspects Shil DasSarma, a microbial geneticist at the University of Maryland. Ancient microbes, he said, might have used a molecule other than chlorophyll to harness the sun's rays, one that gave the organisms a violet hue, he suggests.

15. outcrop

▲ a large rock or group of rocks that sticks out of the ground

The appearance of the pigments across many living organisms hints that they may have evolved very early on, in ancestors common to many branches of the tree of life, the researchers wrote. There is even some evidence that modern purple-pigmented salt-loving organisms called halophiles might be related to some of the earliest life on Earth, which thrived around methane vents in the ocean, Schwieterman said.

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16. scrutiny

▲ the careful and detailed examination of something in order to get information about it

    The Government's record will be subjected to/come under (close) scrutiny in the weeks before the election.

研究人员写道,这些色素在众多生物有机体中的出现,暗示它们可能在很早的时候就在生命之树众多分支所共有的祖先体内完成了进化。施维特曼说,甚至有一些证据表明,被称为“嗜盐菌”的现代紫色喜盐微生物可能与地球上某些最早的生命形式有关,这些生命曾经在海洋中的甲烷喷口附近旺盛生长。

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17. quartz

▲ a hard colourless mineral substance, used in making electronic equipment and accurate watches and clocks

紫色的外星人

地球的大气层能延伸到一万公里

18. vein

▲ [C] a tube that carries blood to the heart from the other parts of the body

▲ [C] the frame of a leaf or an insect's wing

Regardless of whether the first life on Earth was purple, it's clear that lavender life suits some organisms just fine, Schwieterman and DasSarma argue in their new paper. That means that alien life could be using the same strategy. And if alien life is using retinal pigments to capture energy, astrobiologists will find them only by looking for particular light signatures, they wrote.

地球的大气层在距离地表50公里以内是最厚的,但它实际上达到了1万公里。它由对流层、平流层、中间层、热层和外层五层组成。通常,空气压力和密度会随着高度的升高而逐渐降低。

19. nodule

▲ a small raised area or swelling

    There was a soft nodule on my vocal cord.

施维特曼和达斯萨尔马在他们的新论文中指出,不管地球上最早的生命是否呈紫色,显然薰衣草色的生命十分适合某些有机体。这意味着外星生命可能在使用同样的方式。他们写道,如果外星生命正在利用视黄醛色素捕获能量,那么天体生物学家将只有通过寻找特定的光线标记才能找到它们。

Earth's atmosphere is thickest within the first 50 km from the surface or so, but it actually reaches out to about 10,000 km into space. It is made up of five main layers – the Troposphere, the Stratosphere, the Mesosphere, the Thermosphere, and the Exosphere. As a rule, air pressure and density decrease the higher one goes into the atmosphere and the farther one is from the surface.

20. micron

▲ 0.000 001 of a metre(微米)

Chlorophyll, Schwieterman said, absorbs mostly red and blue light. But the spectrum reflected from a plant-covered planet displays what astrobiologists call a "vegetation red edge." This "red edge" is a sudden change in the reflection of light at the near-infrared part of the spectrum, where plants suddenly stop absorbing red wavelengths and start reflecting them away.

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21. rosette

▲ a flower-shaped decorative object cut into wood or stone, or one made of ribbon(= narrow silk strips)worn as a sign that you support a particular team or political party or that you have won a race, etc

    The winning horse had a rosette fixed to its bridle.

施维特曼说,叶绿素主要吸收红光和蓝光。但从一颗覆盖着植物的行星上反射过来的光谱将显示天体生物学家所说的“植被红边”。这种“红边”是光谱中接近红外区域的光线反射的突然变化,植物会突然停止吸收位于该区域的红色波长光并开始将它们反射出去。

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22. hollow

▲ having a hole or empty space inside

    a hollow tube

▲ hollow cheeks/eyes

If someone has hollow cheeks or eyes, their cheeks curve in or their eyes look deep in their head because they are old, tired, or ill.

Retinal-based photosynthesizers, on the other hand, have a "green edge," Schwieterman said. They absorb light up to the green portion of the spectrum, and then start reflecting longer wavelengths away.

地球自转一周不需要24小时

23. diameter

▲ (the length of) a straight line that reaches from one point on the edge of a round shape or object, through its centre, to a point on the opposite edge

    The diameter measures twice the radius.

施维特曼说,另一方面,基于视黄醛的光合生物体拥有“绿边”。它们吸收光谱中绿色区域以下的光线,然后开始反射波长更长的光。

实际上,地球自转一周需要23小时56分4秒,天文学家称之为恒星日。但同时,地球绕太阳公转。每一天,太阳与背景恒星之间的移动幅度约为1°——与天空中月亮的大小差不多。由于地球也绕着太阳转,如果把来自太阳的小运动加起来,总共是24小时,这就是所谓的太阳日。太阳日是太阳连续两次经过同一子午线的时间间隔。

24. haematite

▲ a common dark red or grey rock from which iron is obtained

Astrobiologists have long been intrigued by the possibility of detecting extraterrestrial life by detecting the "red edge," Schwieterman said, but they may need to consider searching for the "green edge," too.

It actually takes 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4 seconds for the Earth to rotate once completely on its axis, which astronomers refer to as a Sidereal Day. But the Earth orbits around the Sun. Every day, the Sun moves compared to the background stars by about 1° – about the size of the Moon in the sky. And so, if you add up that little motion from the Sun that we see because the Earth is orbiting around it, as well as the rotation on its axis, you get a total of 24 hours.This is what is known as a Solar Day, which – contrary to a Sidereal Day – is the amount of time it takes the Sun to return to the same place in the sky.

25. gradient

▲ how steep a slope is

    a steep/gentle gradient

施维特曼说,天体生物学家长期以来一直痴迷于通过探测“红边”来发现外星生命的可能性,但或许他们也需要考虑寻找“绿边”。

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9159com金沙网站:甘比精读,剑桥雅思10TEST3。26. iron oxide

▲ 氧化铁

"If these organisms were present in sufficient densities on an exoplanet, those reflection properties would be imprinted on that planet's reflected light spectrum," he said.

{"type":1,"value":"南极洲是一个极端的大陆

27. filament

▲ a thin thread or fibre of natural or artificial material

    Tooth brushes should be replaced when the filaments become worn.

a thin wire, especially one which lights up inside an electric light bulb

*    a tungsten filament*

9159com金沙网站:甘比精读,剑桥雅思10TEST3。他说:“如果这些生物体以足够的密度存在于某个外星行星上,那么这些反射特性就会记录在该行星的反射光谱上。”

南极大陆是一个极端的地方,尽管它只是第五大大陆,但其南极冰盖包含了地球上70%的淡水和90%的冰。或许你不知道,大家往往认为南极洲是沙漠,其内陆地区每年的降水量只有2英寸。

28. anchor

▲ [I orT] to lower an anchor into the water in order to stop a boat from moving away

▲ [T]to make something or someone stays in one position by fastening them firmly

*    We anchored ourselves to the rocks with a rope.*

The southern continent is a place of extremes, with the Antarctic ice cap containing some 70 percent of Earth's fresh water and about 90 percent of its ice, even though it is only the fifth largest continent. Did you know Antarctica is actually considered a desert? Inner regions get just 2 inches (50 millimeters) of precipitation a year (typically as snow, of course).

29. resemblance

▲ when two people or things look like each other or are similar in some other way

    There was a clear family resemblance between all the brothers.

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30. cradle

▲ [BED] a small bed for a baby, especially one that swings from side to side

    The nurse rocked the cradle.

▲ [TELEPHONE] the object that you put a mobile phone, camera, PDA, etc. into in order to recharge(= put power into)its batteries or connect it to a computer

▲ UK(US scaffold)a frame which hangs on the side of a building, ship, etc. for people to work from

▲ the cradle of sth

the place where something started

    Fossil records indicate that Africa was the cradle of early human evolution.

from (the) cradle to (the) grave

for all of a person's life

    She lived in the same village from the cradle to the grave.

▲[saying]The hand that rocks the cradle (rules the world).

said to emphasise that women have a strong influence on events through their children

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31. crenellated

▲ having battlements(= castle walls with regular spaces along the top)

珊瑚礁是最庞大的生物结构

32. tectonic

▲ relating to the structure of the surface of the Earth and the way it is formed, changed and moved by forces inside it

    the motion of Earth's tectonic plates(= sections of the planet's surface)

珊瑚礁是地球上物种生存密度最高的生态系统,可以与雨林相媲美。美国国家海洋和大气管理局表示,虽然珊瑚礁是由微小的珊瑚虫组成,但它们是地球上最庞大的生物结构——一个由相互联系的有机体组成的群落——有些甚至可以从太空中看到。

33. remnant

▲ a small piece or amount of something that is left from a larger original piece or amount

    the remnants of last night's meal


Coral reefs support the most species per unit area of any of the planet's ecosystems, rivaling rain forests. And while they are made up of tiny coral polyps, together coral reefs are the largest living structures on Earth — a community of connected organisms — with some visible even from space, according to NOAA.

Day12 神句翻译 思维导图

  1. The team contends that / these bear more than a passing resemblance to the networks of bacteria (that live in hydrothermal vents--towering, crenellated structures (that form in the deep ocean above the boundaries between tectonic plates, [where superheated mineral-laden water spurts up from beneath the seabed])).

团队认为,它们拥有的不仅是与生活在热泉喷口的细菌网络的相似之处;这些热泉喷口有着高耸的、锯齿状的结构,形成于深海中地壳边界间,高热的矿物质水从海床下面喷发之处。

该团队认为,这些和生活在深海热泉的细菌群落极为相似----深海热泉指的是:深海中构造板块交界边缘上方高耸锯齿型的部分,富含矿物质的水从海底喷涌而出。Bear more than a passing resemblance to: passing指的是过关,及格线,more than a passing resemblance指远超及格线,非常相似。

这句句子结构相当复杂,从句套从句,还是提醒大家牢记就近原则,但是最后一个where打头的从句,前面一个逗号与破折号之间的部分是修饰hydrothermal vents的插入语,所以where修饰的也是hydrothermal vents。大家可以再仔细体会一下。

  1. Such a find is doubly intriguing because hydrothermal vents are seen as a plausible candidate for the cradle of life.

这样的发现非常引人注目的,因为人们认为热泉喷口是生命起源之地是有可能的。

人们认为深海热泉很有可能是生命的摇篮,这就使得该发现显得更有意思。

Plausible:有两种意思,一个偏褒义,另一个偏贬义,此处指appearingworthy of belief:eg. the argument was both powerful and plausible褒义

建议大家好好研究下plausible的用法,高频词。

  1. Although the sorts of bacteria apparently found by Dr. Papineau and his colleagues are too complicated to reveal much about the very earliest organisms, the suggestion that hydrothermal vents have played host to life for so long is a strike in the theory’s favour.

尽管Papineau博士和同事发现的细菌显然过于复杂,难以显示最早的生物体,但热泉喷口是生命起源之地的观点是这一理论的一个支撑点。

尽管P教授和同事们发现的这类细菌太过复杂,无法更深入的揭示早期生命体的情况,但依然表明深海热泉养育生命的历史甚为悠久,这是支撑该理论的有力依据。

Too....to...太......以致不能......You are too young to drive.你太年轻,还不能开车。

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the living is easy

ps: 这几天太忙了quq,有时间再补上思维导图!今天的翻译也好难!哭/(ㄒoㄒ)/~~


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Day13 总结回顾

……岂可修,论文还没写完!文章也没有细读,还有很多地方不甚理解。但看了笃师的注释之后终于对那三个句子有了比较深的理解——应该说终于读懂了……

anyway,又留下了一个小尾巴,明早早读的时候再读读看——!

来源:中国日报,旨在分享,如有侵权,联系删除。

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