9159com金沙网站 > 教育资讯 > 9159com金沙网站馨安百日斯拉维尼亚语安顿,为何


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A report issued last month by the Government Accountability Office shows that wealthier Americans, who are often able to delay receiving Social Security, are living longer and therefore collecting more money from the government.CREDITPHOTOGRAPH BY TETRA IMAGES / CORBIS


Chinese consumers wasted roughly 17 to 18 million tons of food served in big cities in 2015, a quantity sufficient to feed 30 to 50 million individuals annually, according to a report released at a seminar Saturday in Beijing.

It‘s the moment every dog owner instantly regrets ever letting their dog kiss them on the mouth: Watching that very same beloved, seemingly well-trained and civilized pup eagerly devour a stinky, steaming pile of poop off the sidewalk。

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1、If stress and fatigue kept women from breastfeeding, none of us would be here today.

"That might equate to the total number of people living in South Korea in the same year," said Dr. Wang Ling'en, a leading researcher from the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research at the China Academy Science.


A person's accomplishments accumulate over years and decades. Something else accumulates, too — their poop.

There may be no better way to appreciate humanity’s growing prosperity than to consider how long we live. A child born in 1900—little more than a century ago—was likely, on average, to die by the age of thirty. Today, according to theWorld Bank, the comparable figure is seventy-one. That is a worldwide average and so, of course, there is a considerable gulf between rich countries in Europe and Asia, where people live into their eighties, and the poorest nations in sub-Saharan Africa, where people born today will struggle to live to fifty. Nonetheless, even a child born in Chad, which has the world’s lowest life expectancy—49.81 years—will live two years longer than did the average white American male born in 1900.

2、Our early forebears had no other choice but to breastfeed, and it certainly didn't stop them from having babies.

Of the four cities - including Beijing, Shanghai, Chengdu and Lhasa - surveyed in 2015, vegetables top the list of food waste occurring at the consumer level and account for as much as 29 percent of the total.

Ugh, gross! But why? Why?!


Globally, the inequality in life expectancy is shrinking. Unfortunately, this effect, which the demographer Nicholas Eberstadt has aptly described as a “survival revolution,” does not apply to our country. Here,according to a studypublished in the most recent issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), the numbers are moving in the opposite direction.

3、Your breastfed baby's bowel movements and habits are quite different from those of a formula-fed baby.

The institute's newly revealed survey indicates staple foods, like rice and noodles, and meat are two other main sources of food waste, representing 24 and 18 percent of the total, respectively.


The quantities of poop that people leave behind during an individual bathroom break can vary widely, depending on age, body weight, diet, exercise and other factors.

It will surprise nobody to learn that life expectancy increases with income. Coming, however, in the midst of a Presidential campaign in which the corrosive effects of income inequality have been a principal debate topic, the data and its implications for public policy are particularly striking: the richest one per cent of American men live 14.6 years longer on average than the poorest one per cent. For women, the average difference is a just over ten years.

4、Your baby may move her bowels quite frequently, possibly after every feeding during the first month.

This is despite experts recommending people strive for a simple but balanced diet without too many dishes, particularly for those who dine out with relatives and friends during festivals.

It;s a topic that has long perplexed animal researchers and veterinarians。 And if you Google the topic, you‘re likely to get more than a dozen different explanations ranging from canine anxiety to illness to simply boredom。


The gap appears to be growing fast. The researchers, led by Raj Chetty, a professor of economics at Stanford University, analyzed more than 1.4 billion federal tax returns, as well as mortality data from the Social Security Administration, from the years 2001 to 2014. In that period, the life expectancy of the richest five per cent of Americans increased by roughly three years. For the poorest five per cent, there was no increase.

5、Breastfed babies tend to excrete less waste than formula-fed infants, because human milk is digested so completely.

Surprisingly, research found that each consumer from the above cities throws away 93 grams of food per meal, while more food is wasted or thrown out at school cafeterias and larger restaurants.


But how much poop does the average person produce in their lifetime?

What does a three-year difference mean? According to federal statistics cited in the study, eliminating every cancer death in the United States would add roughly three years to the average lifespan. For the richest Americans, then, the longevity increases of the past fifteen years have been the equivalent of curing cancer.

6、Constipation is rare among breastfed babies and is not defined by frequency of stools or by straining at a bowel movement.

"By 2012, the equivalent of 1.6 Earths were needed to provide the resources and services humanity consumes each year," said Lu Sicheng, director general of the World Wildlife Fund in China, meaning natural resources were already being hit by over-exploitation several years before 2012.

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9159com金沙网站,“To give you a sense of the magnitude’’ of the difference in life expectancy between rich and poor Americans, Chettytold NPR, “men in the bottom one per cent have life expectancy comparable to the average life expectancy in Pakistan or Sudan.’’

7、Each baby comes into this world with a unique personality.

Lu said people have forced natural systems to the edge, where land and fresh water are vital for food processing. Reducing food waste is a priority, and cannot be delayed.

However, a new study led by veterinarian Benjamin Hart, director of the Center for Animal Behavior at the University of California at Davis, has managed to link the off-putting behavior to “greedy eating” (dogs that quickly ravish their food bowls, according to owners) as well as an instinct connected to canines’ ancestral wolf pack days。

Moving one's bowels is part of the normal digestive process for most animals; after nutrients are extracted from food and liquid, waste is eliminated as urine and feces.

To the surprise of many experts, including those who did the research, the study found that the poorest Americans live considerably longer in some cities than in others. In New York, Los Angeles, and Miami, for example, the lowest quarter of income earners lived, on average, until the age of eighty-one. That’s only a few years less than the richest one per cent—and far longer than poor Americans in other regions. The cities with the shortest lifespans for the poor include Las Vegas, Tulsa, and Indianapolis.

8、Children's temperaments influence the way we respond to them.

A series of activities themed on "eating up" has been organized nationwide since the "clear your plate" campaign launched in 2013. But there is still no room for complacency, as more efforts should be stepped up to boost awareness in the next-generation that frugality is a virtue and waste is shameful, said Prof. Cheng Shengkui, principal investigator of the institute, in an interview with China Daily website.



Public-health officials often operate under the assumption that vast differences in access to health care would explain that kind of discrepancy. In this study, it didn’t. The report appears to have laid waste to another dogma: that poor people who live in America’s most stressful, crowded, and expensive cities face the biggest challenges to their health. At least with regard to how long one lives, the opposite appears to be true. People lived longer in cities, whether expensive or not, with highly educated residents, high incomes, and where local government invested in public health.

9、Since you'll respond to your baby's personality, it's helpful to try to figure out his temperament and to accept his uniqueness as an individual.

By explicitly connecting each section of the report to the scientific method, the government at various levels could easily learn how to react to minimize food losses and waste based on data-based tracking and analytic tools, explained Prof. Ge Quansheng, director general of the institute, when asked what the report highlighted.

As the Washington Post reports, Hart and his team surveyed over 3,000 dog owners。 Of these subjects, 16 percent ate other dogs’ feces “frequently” (their owners had witnessed a crappy chow down session at least six times), and of those pups, 80 percent preferred fresh feces less than two days old。 Well, who doesn’t?

Human stool, when healthy, is usually made up of about 70-percent solids and 30-percent fluids, Kim Barrett, a professor of medicine at the University of California, San Diego, told Live Science. Personal bowel habits notwithstanding, on average, both men and women move their bowels about once per day and produce a daily average of 400 to 500 grams of feces, Barrett said.

The reasons for the difference are not clear, although the authors point out that cities like New York often have aggressive anti-smoking policies and make it harder for people to eat trans fats, and drink sugary sodas—which are implicated in common diseases like obesity and diabetes.

10、Whichever way your baby is, the important thing for you to do is to accept and love him for the way he is, not for the way you woule like him to be.

Jointly organized by the institute and WWF, the event won support from many non-government organizations and enterprises, including the United Nations Environment Program China Office, All-China Environment Federation and Walmart Inc. Participants are expected to ally with each other to contribute their efforts and ideas to maximizing the reduction of food waste across China.



The findings are sure to offer ammunition to those who argue for greater investment in community and public health. “Amid the excitement over personalized medicine,’’Steven H. Woolf and Jason Q. Purnell wrote in an accompanying editorial, “the fact remains that a patient’s zip code may be more useful for targeting therapy than his or her genotype. The ability of patients to understand, personalize, and implement treatment plans is influenced by their education, language, literacy, and neighborhood resources.’’


Of all the available solutions to address food waste, cultivating a healthy eating habit seems to hold the most promise, suggested Wang Shi, chairman of Vanke Foundation.

Interestingly, the research suggested that the tendency towards coprophagia (the scientific term for poop-eating) was evident no matter a dog’s age, breed, diet, house-training status or compulsive behavior tendency。 This finding has unleashed a new theory: Modern day dogs have inherited both their aversion to pooping where they live as well as their likelihood to eat fresh poop from their ancient wolf ancestors。

Researchers have even identified the speed at which humans generally produce their poo: about 2 centimeters per second, Live Science previously reported. Constipation — being unable to move one's bowels — can lead to longer, or more uncomfortable bathroom sessions. However, the amount of time a person typically dedicates to unobstructed defecation is about 12 seconds per stool, and is uniform across many animal species regardless of their size, according to David Hu, an associate professor of mechanical engineering and biology at the Georgia Institute of Technology and Patricia Yang, a Georgia Tech doctoral candidate in mechanical engineering.

The longevity gap between rich and poor has already begun to have a profound effect on Social Security, according to aGovernment Accountability Officereport that was issued last month. Americans are entitled to receive retirement benefits at the age of sixty-two. But many wait to retire (benefits must begin by age seventy), and those who do wait earn bigger Social Security checks. Since those who are able to wait are often richer they also tend to live longer and therefore will collect more money from the government.





You see, wayyyy back in those wild days, wolves may’ve eaten the fresh feces of sick, lame or old members who accidentally let a load loose as a way to clean up inside and around their den。 Since it takes about two days for parasites and other pathogens to develop, eating fresh poop is not usually dangerous, and in fact, eating poop that was festering in their living quarters was actually a helpful way to avoid intestinal parasites such as larvae and worms。

Starting with an average daily amount of about 400 grams, the total poop production in a week's time would be about 2.8 kilograms. In a year, a single person would yield about 145 kg of poop — just a little more than an adult panda weighs.




The formula for calculating monthly Social Security benefits is supposed to be progressive. Payments are meant to provide a proportionally larger monthly income for lower earners than for higher earners. However, when viewed in terms of benefits received over a lifetime, the disparities in life expectancy across income groups nullify the progressive effect of the program: the rich collect payments for years longer. In other words, a growing share of Social Security benefits will go to people with higher incomes and a shrinking share are going to those with lower incomes.


That said, some great minds in the canine scientific community think there may be a bit more to it。 For instance, Professor James Serpell of the University of Pennsylvania and editor of the recent book The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behavior and Interactions with People, told theWashington Post he finds the wolf theory “plausible,” but he‘s also intrigued by the “greedy eaters” survey findings。

In the US, the average life expectancy for men is about 76 years old, and for women, it is around 81 years old. Therefore, a man living to age 76 would produce about 11,030 kg of poop over his lifetime, and a woman living to age 81 would produce about 11,757 kg — so a lifetime of a woman's poop weighs about as much as three adult male hippos.

Such disparities may reshape the very foundation of American social-welfare policy. “A medical journal article reporting that income is significantly associated with life expectancy is a call to arms,’’ the authors of the editorial inJAMAwrote, “ but the answer cannot come from medicine or public health alone.’’ Instead, it will have to come from the realm of politics. And until such answers begin to be translated into laws, two things are certain to keep growing: the prosperity of rich Americans, and the suffering of the poor.


犬类研究圈认为好处不止于此。宾夕法尼亚大学教授詹姆斯·斯贝尔(James Serpell),刚刚完成了新书《家犬:进化、行为和与人互动)》,他告诉《华盛顿邮报》,狼理论“有道理”,但是“贪吃”调查的结果也让他很感兴趣。



He referenced a study of free-roaming wild dogs in developing countries that scavenge for food and, as a result, fill up on a sizable amount of human feces。 This seems to indicate that poop could be viewed, errr digested, as a second-hand food source。

Recently, the stark reality of how much poop humans can produce prompted action from officials at Denali National Park and Reserve in Alaska. Years of unregulated pooping by visitors to Denali, North America's tallest mountain, left an estimated 69,000 to 98,000 kg of feces deposited on the mountain between 1951 and 2012.





Today, dogs (and cats) “are fed diets that are relatively rich in fats and protein, not all of which may be completely digested, making their feces potentially attractive as a second hand food source,” Serpell told the Washington Post。

Another unpleasant reality is that 4.5 billion people around the world do not have access to household toilets that safely dispose of their waste, according to the United Nations. And each year, over 181 million metric tons of human waste goes untreated, with more than 90 percent of sewage in the developing world released directly into oceans, lakes and rivers.





So, there you have it。 Poop-eating is probably a normal, evolutionary dog trait。

At least 1.8 billion people worldwide depend on a drinking water source that is contaminated by fecal residue; poor sanitation leads to disease outbreaks and public health crises that affect millions of people each year — many of them children. However, improving access to clean water and implementing better sanitation practices could prevent approximately 842,000 deaths each year, according to reports from the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund.




1、no other choice——别无选择

But, take heart: Hart and his team are working on a solution。 They’re currently looking at clinical trials of new methods and products that dissuade your pup from chomping down on their own or others’ droppings。

2、bowel movement——大便、排便


3、figure out——想出、解决、弄明白

The best thing to do, for now, is keep your dog on a short leash and make sure to pick up your own lawn。



1、别无选择——no other choice

2、大便、排便——bowel movement

3、想出、解决、弄明白——figure out













1、If stress and fatigue kept women from breastfeeding, none of us would be here today.

2、Our early forebears had no other choice but to breastfeed, and it certainly didn't stop them from having babies.

3、Your breastfed baby's bowel movements and habits are quite different from those of a formula-fed baby.

4、Your baby may move her bowels quite frequently, possibly after every feeding during the first month.

5、Breastfed babies tend to excrete less waste than formula-fed infants, because human milk is digested so completely.

6、Constipation is rare among breastfed babies and is not defined by frequency of stools or by straining at a bowel movement.

7、Each baby comes into this world with a unique personality.

8、Children's temperaments influence the way we respond to them.

9、Since you'll respond to your baby's personality, it's helpful to try to figure out his temperament and to accept his uniqueness as an individual.

10、Whichever way your baby is, the important thing for you to do is to accept and love him for the way he is, not for the way you woule like him to be.