9159com金沙网站 > 教育资讯 > 9159com金沙网站日本企业将为富人打造人工流星雨

原标题:9159com金沙网站日本企业将为富人打造人工流星雨

浏览次数:126 时间:2019-07-20

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2020 Olympic Games: A man-made meteor shower launched by satellite could open the games in Tokyo.

日本2020年奥运会将呈现绚丽“人造流星雨”

Japanese research company ALE is bidding to create an artificial meteor shower for the opening ceremony of Olympic Games in Tokyo in 2020. The project, Sky Canvas, goes beyond your average fireworks display:it involves launching a satellite into space “loaded with about 500 to 1000 “source particles” that become ingredients for a shooting star”. The company explains.

日本一家名为Ale的公司公布了一项创新技术,希望能为日本2020年奥运会制造一场“人造流星雨”。这个名为“Sky Canvas”的项目远远超出了你对于烟火秀的理解。Ale公司解释说:“这场人造流星雨是将一颗小型人造卫星发射进入大气层,然后与大气层进行摩擦产生500到1000颗颗粒物,这些颗粒物就是人造流星雨的组成部分。”

The company, which is aiming to launch its first satellitein the second half of 2017, outlines how the project works:

旨在2017年下半年发射第一颗人造卫星的Ale公司就“人造流星雨”这一项目做了如下概述:

When the satellite stabilizes in orbit, we will discharge the particles using a specially designed device on board. The particles will travel about one-thirds of the way around the Earth and enter the atmosphere. It will then begin plasma emission and become a shooting star.

当人造卫星进入固定的轨道后,就会利用卫星上的一种特别设计的装置释放颗粒物。这些颗粒物会绕着地球飞奔1/3的路程,然后进入大气层。之后就会开始进行等离子发射最终形成流星雨。

In company’s initial tests, they placed the particles(each reportedly costing $8100 to produce) in a“vacuum chamber and blasted them with hot gases traveling at supersonic speeds, simulating atmosphere re-entry,”according to industrial design site Core 77. Researchers found that, by using various materials, a range of colors were emitted:

Ale公司在刚开始试验时,他们将颗粒物放置在真空环境中,然后用超音速状态下的热气模拟大气再进入,将其引爆(据报道,一颗颗粒物的制造成本需要8100美金)。另外,研究人员还发现,使用不同的原材料,释放出来的颜色也色彩斑斓的。

If successful, the display will be visible within a 62 miles(100 kilometers) radius. According to the company, that’s a potential audience of 30 million people in the greater Tokyo area.

如果这场人工流星雨能成功的话,方圆62英里(即100千米)内都能欣赏到此壮观景象。预计能观看到此景的人数达到3亿。

Beyond man-made shooting stars, ALE’s goal is to generate a better understanding of how satellite that have outlived their missions and other waste in space can be safety burned up in the earth’s atmosphere.

除了让人们欣赏到壮观的人造流星雨之外,ALE公司还希望通过该项目,人们能更好的了解人造卫星是如何完成他们的使命,废弃物是如何在地球大气层中实现安全自燃的。

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#Asian Space Race

作者:Wernher von Braun
出版社:University of Illinois Press
发行时间:October 1st 1962 (original public by 1953)
来源:下载的 pdf 版本
Goodreads:4.0(37 Ratings)

2527: [Poi2011]Meteors

Time Limit: 60 Sec  Memory Limit: 128 MB
Submit: 1528  Solved: 556
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To glimpse a meteor shower, sometimes you've got to wake up in the middle of the night, bundle up against frigid cold, and wait many minutes or hours. All to see a streak of light, a piece of space that crosses briefly into our world.

亚洲太空竞争

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Description

Byteotian Interstellar Union (BIU) has recently discovered a new planet in a nearby galaxy. The planet is unsuitable for colonisation due to strange meteor showers, which on the other hand make it an exceptionally interesting object of study.

The member states of BIU have already placed space stations close to the planet's orbit. The stations' goal is to take samples of the rocks flying by. The BIU Commission has partitioned the orbit into msectors, numbered from 1to m, where the sectors 1and mare adjacent. In each sector there is a single space station, belonging to one of the nmember states.

Each state has declared a number of meteor samples it intends to gather before the mission ends. Your task is to determine, for each state, when it can stop taking samples, based on the meter shower predictions for the years to come.

 

Byteotian Interstellar Union有N个成员国。现在它发现了一颗新的星球,这颗星球的轨道被分为M份(第M份和第1份相邻),第i份上有第Ai个国家的太空站。

 

这个星球经常会下陨石雨。BIU已经预测了接下来K场陨石雨的情况。
BIU的第i个成员国希望能够收集Pi单位的陨石样本。你的任务是判断对于每个国家,它需要在第几次陨石雨之后,才能收集足够的陨石。
输入:
第一行是两个数N,M。
第二行有M个数,第i个数Oi表示第i段轨道上有第Oi个国家的太空站。
第三行有N个数,第i个数Pi表示第i个国家希望收集的陨石数量。
第四行有一个数K,表示BIU预测了接下来的K场陨石雨。
接下来K行,每行有三个数Li,Ri,Ai,表示第K场陨石雨的发生地点在从Li顺时针到Ri的区间中(如果Li<=Ri,就是Li,Li 1,...,Ri,否则就是Ri,Ri 1,...,m-1,m,1,...,Li),向区间中的每个太空站提供Ai单位的陨石样本。
输出:
N行。第i行的数Wi表示第i个国家在第Wi波陨石雨之后能够收集到足够的陨石样本。如果到第K波结束后仍然收集不到,输出NIE。
数据范围:

 

 

数据范围: 1<=n,m,k<=3*10^5 1<=Pi<=10^9 1<=Ai<10^9

为了看一场流星雨,有时候你得在深更半夜起床,忍受着刺骨的寒冷,等待数十分钟甚至数小时。这一切都只是为了看一道光,看一块和地球不期而遇的太空碎片。

> The Asian space race is a race among several Asian countries to achieve scientific and technological advancements in space.

概要

The Mars Project is a technical specification for a manned expedition to Mars. It was written by von Braun in 1948 and was the first "technically comprehensive design" for such an expedition. The book has been described as "the most influential book on planning human missions to Mars".

Input

The first line of the standard input gives two integers, n and m(1<=n,m<=3*10^5) separated by a single space, that denote, respectively, the number of BIU member states and the number of sectors the orbit has been partitioned into.

In the second line there are mintegers Oi(1<=Oi<=n) separated by single spaces, that denote the states owning stations in successive sectors.

In the third line there are nintegers Pi(1<=Pi<=10^9) separated by single spaces, that denote the numbers of meteor samples that the successive states intend to gather.

In the fourth line there is a single integer k(1<=k<=3*10^5) that denotes the number of meteor showers predictions. The following klines specify the (predicted) meteor showers chronologically. The i-th of these lines holds three integers Li, Ri, Ai(separated by single spaces), which denote that a meteor shower is expected in sectors Li,Li 1,…Ri (if Li<=Ri) or sectors Li,Li 1,…,m,1,…Ri (if Li>Ri), which should provide each station in those sectors with Aimeteor samples (1<=Ai<10^9).

In tests worth at least 20% of the points it additionally holds that .

Soon, though, all you may need is enough cash.

亚洲太空竞争是多个亚洲国家之间的竞争,为了获得太空科学和太空科技的进步

作者介绍

Wernher von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German, later American, aerospace engineer, and space architect. He was the leading figure in the development of rocket technology in Germany and the father of rocket technology and space science in the United States.
In his twenties and early thirties, von Braun worked in Nazi Germany's rocket development program. He helped design and develop the V-2 rocket at Peenemünde during World War II. Following the war, von Braun was secretly moved to the United States, along with about 1,600 other German scientists, engineers, and technicians, as part of Operation Paperclip.

Output

 

Your program should print nlines on the standard output. The i-th of them should contain a single integer Wi, denoting the number of shower after which the stations belonging to the i-th state are expected to gather at least Pi samples, or the word NIE (Polish for no) if that state is not expected to gather enough samples in the foreseeable future.

不过,在不久的以后,看流星所需的可能只是足够的钱。

> A number of Asian nations have become serious contenders in the race to control space in recent years. In January 2007, China sent an anti-satellite missile into orbit to destroy an aging Chinese Feng Yun 1C polar orbit weather satellite.

读后感

因为今天有 Falcon Heavy 的测试发射,所以想到这本书,就翻了一下,作者 Wernher von Braun 是纳粹的火箭项目负责人,回形针行动(二次世界大战末期,美国战略情报局把超过1600名的原纳粹德国科学家,工程师,和技师秘密引进到美国的一个行动)中排名第一的技术专家,后来到美国后主持土星5号的研发,成功地在1969年7月首次达成人类登陆月球

Wernher von Braun 可能是全人类中第一个仔细构想过如何探访火星的人,全书绝大部分都是技术细节、图表、示例图、公式,综合来看,本书不愧为「the most influential book on planning human missions to Mars」

将作者60多年前的设想和目前的情形对比:作者期待的核动力火箭还没有出现;很多潜在的问题已经被国际空间站的各种实验解决;为探访火星而需要的国际间大规模合作也没有出现,反而是 SpaceX 这样的企业目前在带头

Sample Input

3 5
1 3 2 1 3
10 5 7
3
4 2 4
1 3 1
3 5 2  

A Japanese "space entertainment firm" called Astro Live Experiences (ALE) says it will launch its first satellite in 2019 to create artificial meteor showers on demand, for large events or at the whim of the wealthiest among us.

近年来,多个亚洲国家成为了这场控制太空的竞争的有力角逐者。在2007年1月,中国发射了一颗反卫星导弹进入轨道去摧毁一颗老化的中国“飞云1c”轨道天气卫星。

摘录

The algorithm of spaceflight laid out step-by-step in the terse lines of Wernher von Braun's Mars Project displays the logic that seventeen years later carried astronauts to the Moon. Humans have always dreamed of travel to other worlds . The g real rocket pioneers-Tsiolkovsky, Oberth, Goddard, Tsander, von Braun, Korolev, and others-were inspired by the prospect of interplanetary voyages . They sold (and oversold) other applications of rockets, but their real motivation was always spaceflight.
From boyhood, Wernher von Braun envisioned voyages to other worlds. He once told me that it was the gift of a telescope that turned his young eyes skyward and pointed his career toward the stars. As a teenager in pre-World War II Berlin, he joined a group of enthusiastic amateurs designing innovative systems and defining technical breakthroughs required for interplanetary flight. While pursuing his engineering education, he applied his expanding knowledge to the development of critical components for liquid fuel rockets. Recurring, spectacular explosions punctuated these pioneering experiments.
As war clouds gathered, the innovative young engineer was recruited by Captain Walter Dornberger, a thirly-five-year-old artillery officer ordered to build long-range military rockets in lieu of the aircraft prohibited to Germany by the Treaty of Versailles. Despite his youth, von Braun soon became the technical leader of the group and proposed moving the growing enterprise to Peenemünde, an island in the Baltic Sea where his father had hunted ducks.
The space age can be said to have begun on October 3, 1942, with the flight of von Braun's first A-4 (V-2) missile. This 46.1-foot-high, single-stage rocket with a 2,200-pound payload was propelled at 3,500 miles an hour for 200 miles by an alcohol-liquid oxygen engine capable of developing 56,000 pounds of thrust. V-2 bombardment of London was throttled by Allied armies invading Germany, but not until 1,054 rockets had struck England between September 8, 1944, and March 27, 1945 Meanwhile, von Braun survived fleets of Allied bombers that devastated the test complex; he also survived arrest by the Gestapo for defeatist statements about Germany's chances of winning the war Charged with advocating the building of interplanetary spacecraft instead of military weapons, he spent two weeks in a prison cell in Stetten in March 1944.
In February 1945, von Braun Fled Peenemünde ahead of the advancing Red Army He led his battered rocket team southwest with crates of rocket data; on May 2, 1945, they surrendered to advancing American troops near Reutte, Austria. Finding the German team remarkably cooperative, the U.S. Army transported 115 of the captured experts and 100 V-2s to New Mexico to continue rocket development and high-altitude research. Von Braun, like Moses, led his expatriates through the desert toward a distant promised land.
In the course of his subsequent experimental work, von Braun took a fresh look at interplanetary Flight based upon his rocket team's cumulative experience in Germany and the United States. Ten years after the first V-2 rocket Flight, he published his classic Das Marsprojekt in a special issue of the magazine Weltraumfahrt. This work also appeared in 1952 as a slim volume, Das Marsprojekt: Studie einer interplanetarischen Expedition, which was translated and published in 1953 as The Mars Project, which in turn stimulated a series of popular articles in Collier's magazine. Chesley Bonestell' s dramatic illustrations of future space shuttles, space stations, astronaut-tended space telescopes, and interplanetary spacecraft voyaging to Mars inspired a generation of young people to technical careers that could help make spaceflight a reality.
Von Braun's seventy-person Mars expedition included a fleet of forty-six space shuttles of 39-ton lift capacity (NASA's space shuttles lift 20 tons to orbit) . With a turnaround time of 10 days (NASA's shuttles require 75-125 days), these reusable vehicles could make 950 flights to orbit in eight months, allowing for six vehicles being continually out of service. This would require 5.32 million tons of fuel costing around $500 million, which von Braun equated to ten times the high-octane aviation gasoline burned in the six months of the Berlin airlift. The result would be ten fully fueled spaceships, each weighing 3,720 metric tons, ready to depart Earth's orbit in the plane of the ecliptic on a 260-day voyage to Mars.
While von Braun's team was working in the United States, Helmut Grottrup and his engineers were transferring V-2 technology to Soviet teams led by Sergei Korolev, Valentin Glushko, and others. Stalin was particularly impressed by Eugen Sanger and Irene Bredt' s plans for an antipodal bomber capable of attacking America; this conceptual design of an aerospace plane resembled a huge piloted V-2 with wings. He directed that the highest priority be given to intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) development and atomic bombs. New launch complexes were built at Kapustin Yar and Tyuratam to test increasingly powerful Soviet rockets. Impelled by technical advances and the intensifying cold war , ICBM development went into high gear in 1954 on both sides of the Iron Curtain . The resulting advances in rocketry led scientists organizing the International Geophysical Year (IGY) to propose that artificial satellites be launched in 1957
Moscow's response to the IGY proposal was the Commission for Interplanetary Tran sport (ICIC) within the Soviet Academy of Sciences. Led by the academician Leonid Sedov, ICIC' s bold mission was to develop robotic spacecraft for interplanetary flight . On July 29 and 30 , 1955 , both Washington and Moscow announced plans to launch satellites during the IGY The navy's Project Vanguard carried the banner for the United States, Sergei Korolev led the Soviet ICBM/Satellite launcher Program. The latter's team successfully flew the first R-7, Semyorka ("Good Old Number Seven"), two years later, on August 3, 1957
On October 4, a Soviet R-7 launched the 184-pound Sputnik into orbit. Americans were shocked by this spectacular achievement, but they should not have been; not only had Moscow announced its intentions, but von Braun's U.S. team had been ready to launch a small satellite since 1956 (its proposal was shelved in favor of the navy project). On November 3, Moscow celebrated the fortieth anniversary of the Russian Revolution in spectacular style by rocketing the 6-ton Sputnik II into orbit. The payload included an 1, 121-pound capsule with geophysical equipment, telemetry, and a life-support system for the canine cosmonaut Laiko, whose presence clearly presaged human spaceflight. In response to American charges that German experts were behind the Soviet achievements, Nikita Khrushchev smilingly pointed out that the United States had most of the experts and then asked why von Braun's team was not able to launch an American satellite.
A nationwide television audience watched the U.S. Navy 's heralded Vanguard rocket explode and collapse on the launch pad on December 6 . This embarrassing fiasco, after dazzling Soviet achievements, prompted Washing ton to give the eager von Braun and his team the green light to launch a satellite with their Jupiter Crocket. OnJanuary31 , 1958, America's 10.5-pound Explorer I soared into orbit with two micrometeoroid detectors, a Geiger counter, and telemetry. At less than l percent of the weight of Sputnik II, the miniaturized instruments on board nevertheless returned more valuable scientific information by discovering and mapping the Van Allen radiation belt that surrounds Earth.
On the advice of President Eisenhower's Science Advisory Committee, and after a thoughtful review of alternative courses, on April 14 the U.S. Congress passed the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (S. 3609; H.R. 11881), this farsighted piece of legislation created the civilian NASA. America's fledgling space agency organized itself around the predecessor National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, the Naval Research Laboratory's Vanguard team, and two groups transferred from the army : von Braun's Redstone Arsenal team at Huntsville, Alabama, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at Pasadena, California . In the Soviet Union, rapid progress continued as new payloads weighing up to 6,500 pounds were launched. Khrushchev sneered that America would have to launch a lot of orange-sized sputniks to catch up.
On April 12, 1961, Yury Alekseyevich Gagarin blazed a human trail into orbit aboard Sergei Korolev's Vostok I ("The East"). His dramatic spaceflight captured the imagination of the world and called into question American technology and leadership . The Kennedy administration, smarting under Fidel Castro's success at the Bay of Pigs, resolved to gain the lead in space and explored three alternative programs to achieve this goal. An orbiting space station was rejected as too easily within Soviet capabilities, and an expedition to Mars was judged too difficult to accomplish with in a decade. A land ing on the Moon appeared to be an achievable project that would challenge NASA in all areas of spaceflight and establish America as the preeminent spacefaring nation.
The projected $20 billion cost of a lunar landing ($70 billion in 1990 dollars) would boost NASA's peak 1965 budget to 0.78 percent of the gross national product (GNP), but the alternative of surrendering space leadership appeared unthinkable . Four months after Gagarin 's flight, the Berlin Wall was erected, while Red Army tanks patrolled Eastern European capitals and the Soviet Union's shoe-pounding premier threatened at the United Nations to bury the West. Washington saw a threat to world peace from military adventurism by Kremlin leaders miscalculating the relative technological strengths of the superpowers . Although no American had yet flown in orbit, on May 25, 1961 , President Kennedy asked a cheering Congress to direct NASA to land astronauts on the Moon within the decade .
The national goal of a lunar landing within eight years challenged the U.S. aerospace enterprise across the entire spectrum of technologies . NASA administrator James E. Webb drew from government, industry, and university circles to create a superb management team that operated on a semiwartime footing . Ninety percent of the Apollo budget was spent outside the space agency as 400,000 Americans across the country were attracted to NASA's open program and inspiring goals.
Von Braun led Eberhardt Rees, Kurt Debus, and other key Peenemiinde engineers in a fast-paced project to develop the essential heavy-lift launch vehicle: a giant three-stage, 363-foot rocket called the Saturn V The first stage of this unprecedented booster developed 7.5 million pounds of thrust from five mighty F-1 kerosene-liquid oxygen engines burning 15 tons of fuel per second (the fuel pumps alone had greater horsepower than the turbines driving the new ocean liner Queen Elizabeth). The two liquid hydrogen-liquid oxygen upper stages lifted 120 tons of payload into orbit for the 240,000-mile voyage to the Moon . NASA's conceptual systems design group adopted an innovative Lunar Orbit Rendezvous concept that substituted electronic docking prowess for brute rocket power A giant new launch complex was built at Cape Canaveral, a new manned spaceflight center was constructed at Houston, a worldwide tracking network was created, and new industrial and university research facilities were established across the country
As the end of the 1960s approached, precursor robotic missions were launched to characterize the lunar surface, and every spaceflight system and component was tested and retested. The impetus of Project Apollo's purposeful activities spurred many parallel developments, from Mariner spacecraft missions to Venus and Mars to the creation and spin-off of valuable global weather and communications satellite systems.
On July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Mike Collins flew the historic Apollo 11 mission that touched down on the lunar Sea of Tranquility-on time and within budget . Their footprints on the Moon's ancient surface record humanity's first steps toward a multi planet civilization . National jubilation and worldwide acclaim greeted America's triumph. By initiating human exploration of the Moon through NASA's open civilian space program, Presidents Kennedy and Johnson and congressional leaders had made the United States the preeminent spacefaring nation. To von Braun, this achievement marked the next step in the evolution of life. He equated astronauts crossing space to explore the Moon to the first marine life learning to live on land. Apollo 11 was a boyhood dream come true, a beacon lighting the way to our future as a multiplanet species.
Because of his outstanding ability to envision the future, I asked von Braun to join me at NASA headquarters in Washington to help plan America's post-Apollo program. In 1969 President Nixon appointed a Space Task Group to explore manned spaceflight alternatives, including a large orbiting space station, continuing lunar exploration, and a long-range mission to Mars. Von Braun contributed to all these plans but none were pursued; the "Moon Race" was won, and national attention had turned elsewhere. The divisive Vietnam conflict made high-tech programs suspect, and science education came to be seen as elitist. With no future U.S. manned mission in prospect, Saturn Vproduction was terminated and the space program slumped back to a third of its 1960s peak. At the same time American universities experienced a steady decline in young people pursuing graduate work in science and technology.
Dissatisfied with NASA's aimlessness, in 1985 Congress created the Presidential National Commission on Space to look thirty years into the future and recommend long-range goals for America's civilian space program . The commission's final report, Pioneering the Space Frontier, proposed to the president and Congress a balanced, future-oriented program . The overarching recommendation was that America "lead the exploration and development of the space frontier, advancing science, technology and enterprise, and building institutions and systems that make accessible vast new resources and support human settlements beyond Earth's orbit, from the highlands of the Moon to the plains of Mars."
This was the goal anticipated by von Braun's classic Mars Project. On the twentieth anniversary of the first lunar landing, President Bush delivered a historic address at the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum. Standing before the Wright brothers' 1903 Flyer, Lindbergh's 1927 Spirit of Saint Louis, and the 1969 spaceship Columbia in which Apollo 11 astronauts flew to the Moon, the president directed NASA to prepare plans for an orbiting space station, lunar research bases, and human exploration of Mars. The 500th anniversary of Columbus's discovery of the new world will see that world setting sail for other new worlds across the ocean of space.
Von Braun watched the first humans explore the Moon, and he knew that among our children are the first explorers of Mars. As interplanetary travel becomes increasingly feasible and affordable in the twenty-first century, the expansion of life outward from its earthly cradle will become an enduring international goal. Space exploration and settlement will be accelerated by exponentially growing world economies, decreasing superpower confrontation, continuing advances in science and technology, and advancing spaceflight experience. Human intelligence is destined to activate the evolution of life on other worlds.
It is thus Fitting that I close with Wernher von Braun's clear vision of the next century.
Only a miraculous insight could have enabled the scientists of the eighteenth century to foresee the birth of electrical engineering in the nineteenth. It would have required a revelation of equal inspiration for a scientist of the nineteenth century to foresee the nuclear power plants of the twentieth. No doubt, the twenty-first century will hold equal surprises, and more of them. But not everything will be a surprise. It seems certain that the twenty-first century will be the century of scientific and commercial activities in outer space, of manned interplanetary flight, and the establishment of permanent human footholds outside the planet Earth.

The study will deal with a flotilla of ten space vessels manned by not less than 70 men. Each ship of the flotilla will be assembled in a two-hour orbital path around the earth, to which three-stage ferry rockets will deliver all the necessary components such as propellants, structures, and personnel. Once the vessels are assembled, fueled, and "in all respects ready for space," they will leave this "orbit of departure" and begin a voyage which will take them out of the earth's field of gravity and set them into an elliptical orbit around the sun.
At the maximum solar distance of this ellipse which is tangent to the Martian orbit, the ten vessels will be attracted by the gravitational field of Mars, and their rocket motors will decelerate them and swing them into a lunar orbit around Mars. In this they will remain without any thrust application until the return voyage to earth is begun.
Three of the vessels will be equipped with "landing boats" for descent to Mars's surface. Of these three boats, two will return to the circum-Martian orbit after shedding the wings which enabled them to use the Martian atmosphere for a glider landing. The landing party will be transshipped to the seven interplanetary vessels, together with the crews of the three which bore the landing boats and whatever Martian materials have been gathered. The two boats and the three ships which bore them will be abandoned in the circum-Martian orbit, and the entire personnel will return to the earth-orbit in the seven remaining interplanetary ships. From this orbit, the men will return to the earth 's surface by the upper stages of the same three stage ferry vessels which served to build and equip the space ships.

In 1492 Columbus knew less about the far Atlantic than we do about the heavens, yet he chose not to sail with a flotilla of less than three ships, and history tends to prove that he might never have returned to Spanish shores with his report of discoveries had he entrusted his fate to a single bottom. So it is with interplanetary exploration: it must be done on the grand scale. Great numbers of professionals from many walks of life, trained to co-operate unfailingly, must be recruited . Such training will require years before each can fit his special ability into the pattern of the whole. Aside from the design and construction of the actual space vessels, tons of rations, water, oxygen, instruments, surface vehicles and all sorts of expeditionary equipment will be required. The whole expeditionary personnel, together with the inanimate objects required for the fulfillment of their purpose, must be distributed throughout a flotilla of space vessels traveling in close formation, so that help may be available in case of trouble or malfunction of a single ship. The flotilla will coast for months on end along elliptical paths and will require intership visiting, necessitating the use of "space boats." Obviously an ample supply of spare parts and repair equipment cannot be omitted.

Sample Output

3
NIE
1  

日本一家名为天文直播体验(缩写为ALE)的“太空娱乐公司”称,它将在2019年发射首颗能够按需制造人工流星雨的人造卫星。这些流星雨可能是为大型活动制造,也可能为了某个富豪的一个念头。

> A month later, Japan's space agency (JAXA) has launched an experimental communications satellite designed to enable super high-speed data transmission in remote areas.

单词列表:

words sentence
slide rule The author did the work in his spare time and his sole computational tool was a slide rule
air drag its reentry into the atmosphere and ensuing deceleration through air drag
touchdown re-entry into the atmosphere to zero-speed touchdown on the Earth
solar flares radiation hazard posed by cosmic rays, trapped radiation (Van Allen Belt), and solar flares
Atlantic In 1492 Columbus knew less about the far Atlantic than we do about the heavens
walks of life Great numbers of professionals from many walks of life
propellants the use of chemical propellants would require such enormous masses of fuel
circum-tellurian Space ships to reach the circum-Martian orbit and return from it to the circum-tellurian orbit.
nitric acid landing craft are based on hydrazine (N,H,) and nitric acid (HNO,)
en route ferry rockets en route to and from the orbit of departure
suffocate and that they will not freeze to death, nor burn, nor suffocate
weightlessness the effect of weightlessness which exists along all unpowered

HINT

 

Though ALE hasn't named a specific price per event, BuzzFeed News suggests each ALE meteor shower will likely cost several million dollars.

一个月后,日本航空部(JAXA,专有名词未查)发射了一颗实验性的通讯卫星,这颗卫星设计来实现远端超高速数据传输

9159com金沙网站,Source

鸣谢 Object022

尽管ALE公司还没有给人造流星雨定价,但BuzzFeed新闻网站指出,ALE制造的每一场流星雨可能将耗资数百万美元。

> India is hoping to launch its Chandrayaan-1 Moon mission in 2008. South Korea has also expressed its plans to enter the space race in 2008 with its completion of Naro Space Center, and the country's first astronaut Yi So-yeon spent 11 days aboard the International Space Station in April 2008。

[分析]:

      对于单个查询(假设为第i个国家),我们可以二分k,每次对于一个区间[l,r],手动模拟一下在第mid场流星雨过后,第i个国家一共收集到了多少单位的陨石,如果比pi大,那么答案在[l,mid]范围内,否则答案在[mid 1,r]范围内。

      对于多组查询,我们也可以这么做——整体二分。首先,我们需要用一个列表id[]记录所有查询的编号,刚开始的时候,id[]自然是递增的.同时,我们用一个数组lans[i]记录下,第i个国家在l-1场流星雨过后,收集到的陨石的数目。

主过程为void divide(int opl,int opr,int l,int r),表示对于id[opl]到id[opr]的所有询问,在[l,r]范围内查询答案,通过上一层的操作,我们保证id[opl]到id[opr]的所有询问的答案都在[l,r]范围内。

      首先,我们先模拟[l,mid]这么多次操作(在询问重新划分之后,必须要再次模拟,将数组清空),用树状数组(推荐“常数小”)或者是线段树计算出在[l,mid]场流星雨之后,每个空间站收集到的陨石的数目。

然后我们查询,每个国家收集到的陨石的数目,要注意的是,我们需要用链表储存每个国家对应的空间站,并且一一枚举,用nans[id[i]]表示国家id[i]收集到的陨石的数目。

      那么从[1,mid]这么多次操作之后,国家id[i]收集到的陨石数目就是nans[id[i]] lans[id[i]],如果nans[id[i]] lans[id[i]]>P[id[i]],那么表明对于国家id[i],其答案在[l,mid]这个范围内,否则其答案在[mid 1,r]范围内,并将nans[id[i]]累加到lans[id[i]]上。

还有一个坑点是,nans[id[i]]可能很大,会爆掉long long,所以如果枚举一个国家的所有空间站的时候,发现nans[id[i]]已经大于P[id[i]]了,那么就break好了,不然会出错。

     
因为可能会出现怎么也无法满足的情况,所以我们需要多增加一场流星雨,这场流星雨的数量为 oo,保证能够让所有国家都满足要求,那么最后,对于所有答案为k 1的询问,输出NIE就行了。

#include<cstdio>
#include<cstring>
#include<iostream>
#define lowbit(x) (x&-x)
using namespace std;
typedef long long ll;
inline void read(int &x){
    register char ch=getchar();x=0;
    while(ch<'0'||ch>'9') ch=getchar();
    while(ch>='0'&&ch<='9') x=(x<<3) (x<<1) ch-'0',ch=getchar();
}
const int N=3e5 5;
const ll oo=0x7ffffffffffffLL;
struct query{
    int x,y;ll d;
    query(){}
    query(int _x,int _y,ll _d){
        x=_x,y=_y,d=_d;
    }
}q[N];int m,n,k,P[N],ans[N];
int id[N],idl[N],idr[N];
ll nans[N],lans[N];
int tot,to[N],head[N],next[N];
struct BIT{
    ll c[N];
    inline void clr(){memset(c,0,sizeof c);}
    inline void plus(int p,ll v){
        for(int i=p;i<=m;i =lowbit(i)) c[i] =v;
    }
    inline void opera(int l,int r,ll v){
        plus(l,v);plus(r 1,-v);
    }
    inline ll qsum(int &p){
        ll res=0;
        for(int i=p;i;i-=lowbit(i)) res =c[i];
        return res;
    }
}bit;
inline void add(int x,int y){
    to[  tot]=y;next[tot]=head[x];head[x]=tot;
}
//链表记录国家对应环上的点
//nans记入当前区间的贡献(贡献:当前区间所有不同点的陨石量) 
//lans记入上一区间(l-1区间)的贡献
void divide(int opl,int opr,int l,int r){
    if(opl>opr||l>r) return ;
    if(l==r){
        for(int i=opl;i<=opr;i  ) ans[id[i]]=l;
        return ;
    }
    int ql=0,qr=0;
    int mid=(l r)>>1;
    for(int i=l;i<=mid;i  ){
        if(q[i].x<=q[i].y) bit.opera(q[i].x,q[i].y,q[i].d);
        else bit.opera(q[i].x,m,q[i].d),bit.opera(1,q[i].y,q[i].d);
    }
    for(int i=opl;i<=opr;i  ){
        nans[id[i]]=0;
        for(int j=head[id[i]];j;j=next[j]){
            nans[id[i]] =bit.qsum(to[j]);
            if(nans[id[i]] lans[id[i]]>=(ll)P[id[i]]) break;
        }
        if(nans[id[i]] lans[id[i]]>=(ll)P[id[i]]) idl[  ql]=id[i];
        else idr[  qr]=id[i],lans[id[i]] =nans[id[i]];
    }
    for(int i=l;i<=mid;i  ){
        if(q[i].x<=q[i].y) bit.opera(q[i].x,q[i].y,-q[i].d);
        else bit.opera(q[i].x,m,-q[i].d),bit.opera(1,q[i].y,-q[i].d);
    }
    for(int i=1;i<=ql;i  ) id[opl i-1]=idl[i];
    for(int i=1;i<=qr;i  ) id[opl ql i-1]=idr[i];
    divide(opl,opl ql-1,l,mid);
    divide(opl ql,opr,mid 1,r);
}
int main(){
    read(n);read(m);
    for(int i=1,x;i<=m;i  ) read(x),add(x,i);
    for(int i=1,x;i<=n;i  ) read(P[i]),id[i]=i;
    read(k);
    for(int i=1,l,r,x;i<=k;i  ) read(l),read(r),read(x),q[i]=query(l,r,x);
    q[  k]=query(1,m,oo);
    divide(1,n,1,k);
    for(int i=1;i<=n;i  ) if(ans[i]!=k) printf("%dn",ans[i]);else puts("NIE");
    return 0;
}

 

According to CNN, ALE "meteors" will be small metallic pellets made of a proprietary composition that glows orange, blue, or green as they burn up in the atmosphere.

印度计划于2008年发射他们的“Chandrayaan-1”月球导弹。韩国也发布了在2008年随同“Naro”航空中心建成后加入航空竞争。在2008年4月,韩国的首席航天员“Yi So-yeon”已经在国际空间站呆了11天

据CNN报道,ALE公司的“流星”将会是用独家成分制造的小金属球,在大气中燃烧时会发出橙色、蓝色或绿色的光。

> As of 2008, China is the leader in Asia's space race. Its space program has been in the spotlight since 2003, when China became the third country in the world to launch a manned spacecraft, after the former Soviet Union and the United States.

Yet unlike ordinary meteors, which are usually around the size of a sand grain, ALE's fake shooting stars will be substantially bigger - around two centimeters in diameter (smaller than a ping-pong ball, but slightly larger than a marble) - and released in a cloud.

截至2008年,中国是亚洲航空竞争的领头羊,继苏联和美国之后,中国于2003年成为了第三个成功发射载人飞船的国家,自此起,中国的航空计划就备受关注。

不过,不同的是,普通流星一般是沙粒那么大,而ALE的人造流星将会大得多——直径约为2厘米(比乒乓球小,但比弹珠略大些),而且是在云层中释放。

> The issue of a space race's existence in Asia is still debated. China denies that there is an Asian Space Race. Apart from national pride, there are also commercial motivations.

Experts have raised concerns that this could threaten low-orbiting spacecraft.

关于亚洲是否存在“太空竞争”问题(这里更多的是指贬义的太空霸权)仍饱受争议。中国否认亚洲存在(不和谐的、恶意的)航空竞争。除了国际荣誉,同样存在商业动机。

专家指出,这可能会威胁低轨道航天器的安全。这一论述引发了人们的担忧。

> According to a report by the Space Frontier Foundation released in 2006, the "space economy" is estimated to be worth about $180 billion, with more than 60 percent of space-related economic activity coming from commercial goods and services.

"I salute them for cleverness and for their technical expertise, but from an orbital debris standpoint, it's not a great idea," University of Michigan astronomer Patrick Seitzer told BuzzFeed.

根据“Space Frontier Foundation”2006年发布的一片报道,“太空经济”估值1800亿美元,超过百分之六十的太空相关经济活动来源于商业商品和商业服务。

密歇根大学的天文学家帕特里克·赛策尔告诉BuzzFeed网站说:“我欣赏他们的机智和专业技术,但从轨道碎片的角度看,这不是个好主意。”

> Outer space is also of strategic concern to a growing number of countries worldwide.

Moving at high speeds brought on by Earth's gravity, a 2 centimeter-wide object is more than enough to shoot right through a metal spacecraft - and leave devastation in its wake.

外太空也在世界范围内受到越来越多的国家关注。

当一个2厘米宽的物体在地球引力作用下高速运转时,产生的力量足以射穿一个金属太空飞船,并留下破坏性后果。

> Earth's orbit is becoming the main battle ground to ensure national security.

ALE seems to be taking steps to ensure this would be an unlikely event.

地球轨道也成为了确保国际安全的主战场。

ALE公司似乎正在采取行动预防这种情况的发生。

9159com金沙网站日本企业将为富人打造人工流星雨,人造流星雨。> While the achievements of space programs run by China, Japan and India are modest in comparison to the milestones set by the United States and the former Soviet Union, experts believe it may only be a matter of time before Asia leads the field.

ALE's satellite would likely orbit just below the International Space Station to avoid collisions; any pellet that ALE's satellite releases will go from an altitude of 220 miles (354 km) to about 37 miles (59.5 km) above the surface before burning up.

相比于美国和苏联的里程碑式成就,中国、日本和印度启动航天计划的取得成就还不咋地(略显逊色),专家相信亚洲成为航天领域领导者也许只是时间问题。

ALE的人造卫星会在国际空间站下方绕轨道运行以避免相撞;ALE的人造卫星所释放的任何金属球都会从地表以上220英里(354千米)的高度下降到37英里(59.5千米)的高度才会开始燃烧。

> China's first manned spacecraft entered orbit in October 2003, making it the first Asian nation to send a human into space.

Rodenbaugh told BuzzFeed that only 40 other satellites orbit below 220 miles, and that the company would call off any event that would put their artificial meteors close to a tracked satellite.

中国的第一艘载人飞船于2003年10月进入轨道,斩获亚洲国家载人航天一血。

罗登堡告诉BuzzFeed网站,只有40颗其他人造卫星在220英里以下的高度绕轨道运行,如果人造流星雨的位置离可追踪卫星太近,公司会取消流星雨计划。

> This event marked the beginning of a space race in the region.

Yet fake meteor showers could still impact spy satellites, which are not tracked and can dip as low as 158 miles.

这一事件成为亚洲航天竞争的起始点。

尽管如此,人造流星雨仍然会对间谍卫星产生影响,因为这些卫星无法追踪,而且会在低至158英里(254千米)的高度运行。

> The motivations behind a new space race include national pride, national security and even commercial gain. Japan continues developing its manned spacecraft (HOPE-X) from the 80s.

Low-earth orbit (that is, anything under 2,000 km from the Earth's surface) is also slated to become a lot busier in the coming years, Seitzer told Buzzfeed.

新的航天竞争的驱动力包括国际荣誉、国际安全、甚至是商业利润。日本从20世纪八十年代就开始持续研究载人飞船(HOPE-X计划?)

赛策尔告诉BuzzFeed网站说,近地轨道(距离地表2000千米以内)在未来也将变得更加繁忙。

Indeed, there are plans in the works that suggest low-earth orbit is about to become a lot more crowded. SpaceX and other companies plan to send up a number of satellites to establish satellite-based internet services; SpaceX alone plans to put over 4,000 of them between 700 and 900 miles (1,100 and 1,400 kilometers).

目前正在实施的计划显示,近地轨道确实将变得更拥挤。SpaceX和其他公司计划发送多颗人造卫星来建立基于卫星的网络服务;SpaceX公司还计划将4000多颗卫星放在700至900英里间的高度(1100到1400千米之间)。

There are also the high-speed rockets and space planes that companies plan to fill with tourists, and low-altitude spacecraft that the military wants to use to deliver yet more satellites.

多个公司还计划让游客乘坐高速火箭和航天飞机上天,军方则希望通过低空飞行器运送更多卫星。

Add thousands of falling metal pellets to the 500,000 pieces of man-made debris we already know circle our planet, and the risk for any of these spacecraft becomes significantly higher.

在已知环绕地球的50万个人造碎片之外,再添加数千个坠落的金属球,将会大大增加所有这些航天器所面临的风险。

Call us purists, but artificially creating shooting stars also overlooks what makes meteor showers so incredible in the first place: that you never know exactly when you're going to see them.

叫我们纯粹主义者也罢,但是人造流星的创造者们忽视了流星雨如此可贵的最初原因:那就是你永远不能确切地知道你什么时候能看见它们。

Paying for a manufactured one doesn't exactly have the same thrill. (May we humbly suggest you instead use your considerable wealth to address the problem of light pollution, so that more people could see natural shooting stars?)

付钱让人制造一场流星雨并不能引发同样的震撼。(容我们建议,你还不如用你的巨额财产来解决光污染问题,好让更多人能看到自然的流星。)

Creating a space hazard simply to provide a cheap imitation of a natural wonder seems to be missing the point.

给太空制造安全隐患,只为了蹩脚地模仿自然奇观,似乎完全抓错了重点。

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