1. Drying Your Hands
This is a tuberculosis ward, and at the time this picture was taken in the late 1800s, one in seven of all people died from tuberculosis. We had no idea what was causing this disease. The hypothesis was actually it was your constitution that made you susceptible. And it was a highly romanticized disease. It was also called consumption, and it was the disorder of poets and artists and intellectuals. And some people actually thought it gave you heightened sensitivity and conferred creative genius.
基本指示：Choice of bacterial strain: The bacterial E. coli strains we use when plating out cDNA and genomic libraries are normChoice of bacterial strain:
If you're a germophobe who wants to use a public bathroom ever again, you might want to stop reading this.
Hand-washing seems pretty simple, but a recent study shows that 97% of the time, we're still doing it wrong -- which can lead to contamination of food and surfaces and result in foodborne illness.
By the 1950s, we instead knew that tuberculosis was caused by a highly contagious bacterial infection, which is slightly less romantic, but that had the upside of us being able to maybe develop drugs to treat it. So doctors had discovered a new drug, iproniazid, that they were optimistic might cure tuberculosis, and they gave it to patients, and patients were elated. They were more social, more energetic. One medical report actually says they were "dancing in the halls." And unfortunately, this was not necessarily because they were getting better. A lot of them were still dying. Another medical report describes them as being "inappropriately happy." And that is how the first antidepressant was discovered.
The bacterial E. coli strains we use when plating out cDNA and genomic libraries are normally LE392 and NM538, but some times we also use XL1-blue cells.
If you're using more than one paper towel to dry your hands, you're doing it wrong. Instead, FOLD the paper towel length-wise and use that one piece to dry.
So accidental discovery is not uncommon in science, but it requires more than just a happy accident. You have to be able to recognize it for discovery to occur.
- Streak out bacteria on a LB plate. Pick a single colony and transfer to a flask with 50 ml LB. NB! remember to add maltose to the LB, 0.2% final concentration. Grow over night.
- Spin down cells in a 50 ml Falcon tube and resuspend in 20-25 ml 10mM MgSO4. The bacteria can be stored at 4 C for up to one month, but if you are using the bacteria to check the titer of the library or to plate out the lambda library , ALWAYS use fresh bacteria.
Because it turns out, while bathroom hand dryers can be more environmental than paper towels, they can also be a whirlpool of faecal matter.
The study from the US Department of Agriculture shows most consumers failed to wash their hands and rub with soap for 20 seconds. That's the amount of time recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which says that washing for shorter periods means fewer germs are removed.
As a neuroscientist, I'm going to talk to you a little bit about my firsthand experience with whatever you want to call the opposite of dumb luck -- let's call it smart luck. But first, a bit more background.
Checking the titer of the library:
Thankfully, since the 1950s, we've developed some other drugs and we can actually now cure tuberculosis. And at least in the United States, though not necessarily in other countries, we have closed our sanitoriums and probably most of you are not too worried about TB. But a lot of what was true in the early 1900s about infectious disease, we can say now about psychiatric disorders.
- 9159com金沙网站：双语阅读，这么多年你真的会洗手吗。9159com金沙网站：双语阅读，这么多年你真的会洗手吗。Make a dilution series of the library. Depending on the titer of your library, normally around 108 - 109 pfu/ml, take out 10 ul of the library stock solution ul and transfer to 990 ul SM solution, this will be the "107 " stock solution which you normally plate the library from. Make a 1/100 dilution of the 107 stock, , a 1/100 dilution of the 105 mix , and a 1/100 dilution of the 103 mix .
- Transfer bacterial cells , to 3 eppendorf tubes, 100 ul in each. Add 2 ul of the 105 mix, 2 ul of the 103 mix, and 2 ul of the 101 mix. Incubate for 15 min. at 37 C to let the phage particles adhere to the E. coli cells.
- Melt the top agarose in microwave oven, transfer 3 ml to 15 ml tubes.
- Transfer the phages and cells to the top agarose, 3 ml in a 15 ml. tube. . Invert the tube a couple of times and pour the top agar on a lambda plate. Wait until the top agarose has solidified and incubate the plates at 37 C until you see the plaques.
- Count the plaques and calculate the titer of the library.
You might not know it, but when someone flushes an open toilet, little bits of poop and bacteria can be thrown as high as 15 feet (4.5 metres) into the air.
"Numerous" study participants also didn't dry their hands with a clean towel.
We are in the middle of an epidemic of mood disorders like depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD. One in four of all adults in the United States suffers from mental illness, which means that if you haven't experienced it personally or someone in your family hasn't, it's still very likely that someone you know has, though they may not talk about it. Depression has actually now surpassed HIV/AIDS, malaria, diabetes and war as the leading cause of disability worldwide. And also, like tuberculosis in the 1950s, we don't know what causes it. Once it's developed, it's chronic, lasts a lifetime, and there are no known cures.
Top agarose, 500 ml:
According to several studies, pooping on a Western toilet is super bad for your bowels. But you don't have to crouch on a hole or next to a tree to get the benefits of a correctly angled rectum. Instead, use a step stool to make your body into the correct shape while still on the ceramic throne you're used to.
The second antidepressant we discovered, also by accident, in the 1950s, from an antihistamine that was making people manic, imipramine. And in both the case of the tuberculosis ward and the antihistamine, someone had to be able to recognize that a drug that was designed to do one thing -- treat tuberculosis or suppress allergies -- could be used to do something very different -- treat depression. And this sort of repurposing is actually quite challenging. When doctors first saw this mood-enhancing effect of iproniazid, they didn't really recognize what they saw. They were so used to thinking about it from the framework of being a tuberculosis drug that they actually just listed it as a side effect, an adverse side effect.
Lambda plates, 1 liter.
As if that's not gross enough, now a new study has found that those little bits of poop and bacteria can be sucked up by warm hand dryers and blown straight onto your freshly washed hands.
The study involved 383 people in six test kitchen facilities in the metro Raleigh-Durham area of North Carolina and in rural Smithfield, North Carolina, the USDA said.
As you can see here, a lot of these patients in 1954 are experiencing severe euphoria. And they were worried that this might somehow interfere with their recovering from tuberculosis. So they recommended that iproniazid only be used in cases of extreme TB and in patients that were highly emotionally stable, which is of course the exact opposite of how we use it as an antidepressant. They were so used to looking at it from the perspective of this one disease, they could not see the larger implications for another disease.
Plating out the library:
3. Adjusting Your Rear-View Mirrors
And to be fair, it's not entirely their fault. Functional fixedness is a bias that affects all of us. It's a tendency to only be able to think of an object in terms of its traditional use or function. And mental set is another thing. Right? That's sort of this preconceived framework with which we approach problems. And that actually makes repurposing pretty hard for all of us, which is, I guess, why they gave a TV show to the guy who was, like, really great at repurposing.
- Take out 3.6 ml of E. coli cells , and transfer to 15 ml tube.
- Add 300,000 pfu from the library, x ul.
- Incubate 30 min. at 37 C.
- Transfer 300 ul of phages / cells to 7 ml topagarose . Invert the
tube a couple of times and pour the topagarose over the lambda
plate, 140 mm.
- It is important that the lambda plate is "dried out" a bit before you use them. Pouring the topagarose onto a "wet" newly made plate can give problems when you take filter lifts later.
- Plate out all the phage, . Let the top agarose solidify and incubate the plates at 37 C.
- Watch the plates carefully when the bacteria grow. cDNA libraries are normally much "faster" to produce plaques, and you can normally see them after 4 hours. Wait until the plates are almost confluent. That takes 5-7 hours with cDNA libraries and 6-10 hours with genomic libraries.
- When the plates are ready you can store them at 4 C over night. If the plates are almost confluent you might expect some diffusion of phages but that is normally not any problems.
Researchers at the University of Connecticut began their study by placing petri dishes under various bathroom hand dryers around the school. Then, the team sat down to analyse the results.
Poor hand-washing practices led to cross-contamination, the study found. About half the time, participants spread bacteria to spice containers while preparing burgers, and 11% of the time, they spread bacteria to refrigerator handles.
Taking lifts of the plates, .
When you adjust your side mirrors, usually you turn them so that you can see the back sliver of your car and think you’re good to go. But you already know where the back of your car is: it's right behind you!! Instead, turn your mirrors until just after your car disappears from view and you can almost eliminate those pesky and dangerous blind spots.
So the effects in both the case of iproniazid and imipramine, they were so strong -- there was mania, or people dancing in the halls. It's actually not that surprising they were caught. But it does make you wonder what else we've missed. So iproniazid and imipramine, they're more than just a case study in repurposing. They have two other things in common that are really important. One, they have terrible side effects. That includes liver toxicity, weight gain of over 50 pounds, suicidality. And two, they both increase levels of serotonin, which is a chemical signal in the brain, or a neurotransmitter. And those two things together, right, one or the two, may not have been that important, but the two together meant that we had to develop safer drugs, and that serotonin seemed like a pretty good place to start.
- Label the filters thoroughly. Place the filter on top of the top agarose for about 1-2 min. Then using a needle mark the filter with needle holes. . We also mark the needle holes at the back side of the lambda plate with a marker. This makes it easier to align the exposed films against the plates.
- The duplicate filter is placed on the top agarose for 2-5 min., and marked similarly as the first filter.
Let the filter dry. The lambda phage is now transferred to the filter.
Denaturation solution: 1.5 M NaCl, 0.5 M NaOH
Neutralization solution: 1.5 M NaCl, 0.5 M Tris-Cl pH 8.0
Soak the filter in denaturation solution for 2-5 min. Transfer the filer to 3M paper where it partially dries up.
- Soak the filter in neutralization solution for 5 min. Transfer the filer to 3M paper where it partially dries up.
- Wash the filter two times in 2 X SSC.
- Let the filters dry.
- UV fixate for 1-2 min. .
- The filters are ready for use. Before use they should be stored in a dry place at room temp.
While the plates that were exposed to normal bathroom air had about one bacterial colony present, the samples that were exposed to 30 seconds of hand dryer air had 18 to 60 bacterial colonies per plate.
"You can't see, smell or feel bacteria," said Carmen Rottenberg, acting deputy undersecretary for food safety at the USDA. "By simply washing your hands properly, you can protect your family and prevent that bacteria from contaminating your food and key areas in your kitchen."
So we developed drugs to more specifically focus on serotonin, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, so the SSRIs, the most famous of which is Prozac. And that was 30 years ago, and since then we have mostly just worked on optimizing those drugs. And the SSRIs, they are better than the drugs that came before them, but they still have a lot of side effects, including weight gain, insomnia, suicidality -- and they take a really long time to work, something like four to six weeks in a lot of patients. And that's in the patients where they do work. There are a lot of patients where these drugs don't work.
4. Peeling Potatoes
And that means now, in 2016, we still have no cures for any mood disorders, just drugs that suppress symptoms, which is kind of the difference between taking a painkiller for an infection versus an antibiotic. A painkiller will make you feel better, but is not going to do anything to treat that underlying disease. And it was this flexibility in our thinking that let us recognize that iproniazid and imipramine could be repurposed in this way, which led us to the serotonin hypothesis, which we then, ironically, fixated on. This is brain signaling, serotonin, from an SSRI commercial. In case you're not clear, this is a dramatization. And in science, we try and remove our bias, right, by running double-blinded experiments or being statistically agnostic as to what our results will be. But bias creeps in more insidiously in what we choose to study and how we choose to study it.
The researchers concluded that "many kinds of bacteria, including potential pathogens and spores, can be deposited on hands exposed to bathroom hand dryers."
The results from the USDA's study indicate our hand-washing habits may be getting worse. A study done in 2013 by Michigan State University found only 5% of people washed their hands correctly.
So we've focused on serotonin now for the past 30 years, often to the exclusion of other things. We still have no cures, and what if serotonin isn't all there is to depression? What if it's not even the key part of it? That means no matter how much time or money or effort we put into it, it will never lead to a cure.
Using a peeler to get your potatoes naked is fine if you hate your time. But if you want to do this magic, boil your taters FIRST, then pop them in an ice water bath for a mere five seconds and the skin will slide right off.
In the past few years, doctors have discovered probably what is the first truly new antidepressant since the SSRIs, Calypsol, and this drug works very quickly, within a few hours or a day, and it doesn't work on serotonin. It works on glutamate, which is another neurotransmitter. And it's also repurposed. It was traditionally used as anesthesia in surgery. But unlike those other drugs, which were recognized pretty quickly, it took us 20 years to realize that Calypsol was an antidepressant, despite the fact that it's actually a better antidepressant, probably, than those other drugs. It's actually probably because of the fact that it's a better antidepressant that it was harder for us to recognize. There was no mania to signal its effects.
We always do a 1-2 hour pre hybridization before we start the real hybridization with the probe. Our pre hybridization buffer is more or less the same to the one you find in Maniatis.
- 6 X SSC, 5 X Denhards, 0.5 % SDS, 10 ug/ml salmon sperm DNA.
Pre-hybridization is normally done at 60 - 65 C, in a water bath with shaker.
We normally do the hybridizations in a glass dish / glass beaker, using a water bath to control the temperature. The hybridization volume can be from 20-100 ml. The larger the volume the longer you need to run the hybridization. One to two days is normal if the volume is above 50 ml. Over night hybridization is enough if the volume is less than 50 ml. Hybridization solution:
- 6 X SSC, 0.5 % SDS, plus the 32P labeled probe.
Boil the probe before you add it to the pre-warmed hybridization solution, .
- Pour off the pre-hybridization solution and add the probe/hybridization solution.
- Seal the hybridization "container", .
Hybridization temperature depends on your probe and what you are screening after.
- High stringency screening: 65 C.
- Medium stringency: 55-62 C.
- Low stringency: 50-55 C.
After the hybridization pour the probe into a 50 ml tube and put it in a -20 C freezer. Shield the probe. The probe can be reused a couple of times.
"The more air ya move? The more bacteria stick," lead author Peter Setlow explained to?Business Insider.
So what's the right way to wash hands? The CDC has some tips, starting with an obvious step: wetting hands with clean, running water.
So in 2013, up at Columbia University, I was working with my colleague, Dr. Christine Ann Denny, and we were studying Calypsol as an antidepressant in mice. And Calypsol has, like, a really short half-life, which means it's out of your body within a few hours. And we were just piloting. So we would give an injection to mice, and then we'd wait a week, and then we'd run another experiment to save money.
Washing of the filters:
5. Cracking Eggs
And one of the experiments I was running, we would stress the mice, and we used that as a model of depression. And at first it kind of just looked like it didn't really work at all. So we could have stopped there. But I have run this model of depression for years, and the data just looked kind of weird. It didn't really look right to me. So I went back, and we reanalyzed it based on whether or not they had gotten that one injection of Calypsol a week beforehand. And it looked kind of like this. So if you look at the far left, if you put a mouse in a new space, this is the box, it's very exciting, a mouse will walk around and explore, and you can see that pink line is actually the measure of them walking. And we also give it another mouse in a pencil cup that it can decide to interact with. This is also a dramatization, in case that's not clear. And a normal mouse will explore. It will be social. Check out what's going on. If you stress a mouse in this depression model, which is the middle box, they aren't social, they don't explore. They mostly just kind of hide in that back corner, behind a cup. Yet the mice that had gotten that one injection of Calypsol, here on your right, they were exploring, they were social. They looked like they had never been stressed at all, which is impossible.
We normally wash the filters in SSC / SDS solutions after the hybridization is done. The washing solution and temperature depends on your probe and stringency conditions.
"And there are a lot of bacteria in bathrooms."
Step 2: After wetting hands with water, turn off the tap and apply soap.
So we could have just stopped there, but Christine had also used Calypsol before as anesthesia, and a few years ago she had seen that it seemed to have some weird effects on cells and some other behavior that also seemed to last long after the drug, maybe a few weeks. So we were like, OK, maybe this is not completely impossible, but we were really skeptical.
- High stringency wash: 0.1 X SSC, 0.1 % SDS, at 65 C.
- Medium stringency wash: 0.5 - 1.0 X SSC, 0.1 % SDS, at 55-62 C.
- Low stringency wash: 2 X SSC, 0.1 % SDS, at 50-55 C.
Cracking an egg on the side of a bowl usually leaves little shells on the raw egg that are a pain to remove. Instead, gently tap the egg on the counter or a cutting board and then use both hands to pull the two sides apart. No more shell pieces!
So we did what you do in science when you're not sure, and we ran it again. And I remember being in the animal room, moving mice from box to box to test them, and Christine was actually sitting on the floor with the computer in her lap so the mice couldn't see her, and she was analyzing the data in real time. And I remember us yelling, which you're not supposed to do in an animal room where you're testing, because it had worked. It seemed like these mice were protected against stress, or they were inappropriately happy, however you want to call it. And we were really excited.
Normally you wash the filters 2 - 3 times in a volume of 200-300 ml. Check the activity of the filters with a Geiger counter. Too high activity normally means that the background signals are high. The activity shall normally be "low", that's unless you have 10-100 of positive clones pr. filter.
The results are so yuck that Setlow himself has officially sworn off hand dryers. And now, the University of Connecticut offers paper towels as a hand dryer alternative.
Step 3: Lather hands by rubbing them together with the soap. Be sure to lather the backs of hands, between fingers, and under fingernails.
And then we were really skeptical, because it was too good to be true. So we ran it again. And then we ran it again in a PTSD model, and we ran it again in a physiological model, where all we did was give stress hormones. And we had our undergrads run it. And then we had our collaborators halfway across the world in France run it. And every time someone ran it, they confirmed the same thing. It seemed like this one injection of Calypsol was somehow protecting against stress for weeks.
And we only published this a year ago, but since then other labs have independently confirmed this effect. So we don't know what causes depression, but we do know that stress is the initial trigger in 80 percent of cases, and depression and PTSD are different diseases, but this is something they share in common. Right? It is traumatic stress like active combat or natural disasters or community violence or sexual assault that causes post-traumatic stress disorder, and not everyone that is exposed to stress develops a mood disorder. And this ability to experience stress and be resilient and bounce back and not develop depression or PTSD is known as stress resilience, and it varies between people. And we have always thought of it as just sort of this passive property. It's the absence of susceptibility factors and risk factors for these disorders. But what if it were active? Maybe we could enhance it, sort of akin to putting on armor.
Still, the average person doesn't need to freak out just yet. Setlow says that even though people who suffer from weak immune systems, like seniors, should avoid using hand dryers, the rest of us can probably handle it.
Step 4: Scrub hands for at least 20 seconds. (Sing the alphabet song once or "Happy Birthday" twice.)
We had accidentally discovered the first resilience-enhancing drug. And like I said, we only gave a tiny amount of the drug, and it lasted for weeks, and that's not like anything you see with antidepressants.
If you're flushing with the lid up, guess where all those particles and germs are going when they're stirred up by the swirling action? Into the air! On your body! On your toothbrush, probably!
But it is actually kind of similar to what you see in immune vaccines. So in immune vaccines, you'll get your shots, and then weeks, months, years later, when you're actually exposed to bacteria, it's not the vaccine in your body that protects you. It's your own immune system that's developed resistance and resilience to this bacteria that fights it off, and you actually never get the infection, which is very different from, say, our treatments. Right? In that case, you get the infection, you're exposed to the bacteria, you're sick, and then you take, say, an antibiotic which cures it, and those drugs are actually working to kill the bacteria. Or similar to as I said before, with this palliative, you'll take something that will suppress the symptoms, but it won't treat the underlying infection, and you'll only feel better during the time in which you're taking it, which is why you have to keep taking it. And in depression and PTSD -- here we have your stress exposure -- we only have palliative care. Antidepressants only suppress symptoms, and that is why you basically have to keep taking them for the life of the disease, which is often the length of your own life.
Besides – just because hand dryers churn out a ton of bacteria, doesn't mean that bacteria is necessarily bad for you. After all, fungi, bacteria and other microbes are absolutely everywhere you go, and the vast majority of this menagerie doesn't make you sick.
Step 5: Rinse hands well under clean, running water.
So we're calling our resilience-enhancing drugs "paravaccines," which means vaccine-like, because it seems like they might have the potential to protect against stress and prevent mice from developing depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Also, not all antidepressants are also paravaccines. We tried Prozac as well, and that had no effect.
7. Eating Pizza
So if this were to translate into humans, we might be able to protect people who are predictably at risk against stress-induced disorders like depression and PTSD. So that's first responders and firefighters, refugees, prisoners and prison guards, soldiers, you name it.
Plus, exposure to bacteria is an important part of building up your immune system so that you can live a long and healthy life.
Step 6: Dry hands with a clean towel or air dry them.
And to give you a sense of the scale of these diseases, in 2010, the global burden of disease was estimated at 2.5 trillion dollars, and since they are chronic, that cost is compounding and is therefore expected to rise up to six trillion dollars in just the next 15 years.
There is nothing quite as devastating to a hungry drunk as lifting a piping hot slice to your face only to have the good stuff fall off. Prevent this travesty by bending the edges of your pizza enough to create a U shape (DO NOT FOLD IT) that will keep those toppings taut.
As I mentioned before, repurposing can be challenging because of our prior biases. Calypsol has another name, ketamine, which also goes by another name, Special K, which is a club drug and drug of abuse. It's still used across the world as an anesthetic. It's used in children. We use it on the battlefield. It's actually the drug of choice in a lot of developing nations, because it doesn't affect breathing. It is on the World Health Organization list of most essential medicines.
And yes, while previous studies have found that bathroom hand dryers have the potential to spread diseases, the chances of this happening are not drastically higher because you're in a bathroom.
A separate study released last month found 49 of 100 towels tested showed growth of bacteria normally found in or on the human body. That included E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus, often referred to as "staph."
If we had discovered ketamine as a paravaccine first, it'd be pretty easy for us to develop it, but as is, we have to compete with our functional fixedness and mental set that kind of interfere. Fortunately, it's not the only compound we have discovered that has these prophylactic, paravaccine qualities, but all of the other drugs we've discovered, or compounds if you will, they're totally new, they have to go through the entire FDA approval process -- if they make it before they can ever be used in humans. And that will be years. So if we wanted something sooner, ketamine is already FDA-approved. It's generic, it's available. We could develop it for a fraction of the price and a fraction of the time.
8. Opening Plastic Packaging
But actually, beyond functional fixedness and mental set, there's a real other challenge to repurposing drugs, which is policy. There are no incentives in place once a drug is generic and off patent and no longer exclusive to encourage pharma companies to develop them, because they don't make money. And that's not true for just ketamine. That is true for all drugs. Regardless, the idea itself is completely novel in psychiatry, to use drugs to prevent mental illness as opposed to just treat it.
"The restroom isn't that dangerous," Jack Gilbert, a microbiologist at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois, told?Live Science?back in 2016.
The bacteria were more likely to be found on wet towels, and towels used for more than one purpose, such as wiping counter tops and utensils and drying hands, according to the study, conducted by researchers from the University of Mauritius.
It is possible that 20, 50, 100 years from now, we will look back now at depression and PTSD the way we look back at tuberculosis sanitoriums as a thing of the past. This could be the beginning of the end of the mental health epidemic.
Trying to use scissors to open blister packages is a frustrating and sometimes dangerous ordeal. Instead, just use a can opener! And if you want to change the rest of your can-opening moments for the better, do yourself a favor and get THIS can opener.
But as a great scientist once said, "Only a fool is sure of anything. A wise man keeps on guessing."
"The organisms which can grow there have a very low probability of being able to cause an infection."
Washing hands correctly is one of the easiest ways to avoid foodborne illnesses, which sickens 48 million Americans each year, according to CDC estimates. That results in roughly 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths.
Thank you, guys.
9. Pouring From a Carton
Nor is it completely clear if paper towels are a better alternative.
When you pour anything from a carton, your instinct is to put the spout close to the glass. But actually, this method results in a floppy splashy pour stream. Instead, turn the carton upside down and hold the flap down flat for a smooth pour.
While some past studies have found that paper towels are more sanitary, other independent studies have found no significant difference between the bacterial colonies bestowed by paper towels and those bestowed by hand dryers.
10. Unloading Soda Cans
But if the thought of this study is still disturbing you, take comfort in this: Setlow and his team also found that retrofitting hand dryers with HEPA air filters reduced bacterial colonies four times over.
Instead of putting each one into the fridge or putting the whole box in, just open both sides, put the box inside, and use your hand to push all the cans out in a neat stack.
"Our obsession with overt sterilisation and cleanliness, our paranoia, is just not helpful," Gilbert told?Live Science.
11. Holding a Burger
So whatever you do, just try to remember: regardless of how you dry your hands, you're bound to gather some bacteria one way or another.
If you want to keep the innards of your burger inside the burger, you gotta whip out those pinkies. Scientists actually found this method to be the most effective way to hold a burger. And burger science is the best science.
And that's the gross truth.
12. Drying Cups & Bowls
The study was published in?Applied and Environmental Microbiology.
When you put concave dishes face down to dry, gravity helps the water leave, sure, but then it has nowhere to go. This can give dishes and drying mats a mildewy smell that is not ideal. Instead, just put your cups and bowls face up (or for wine glasses, lying on their sides) and you'll have dry dishes in no time with no extra scents.
13. Beat Boxing
Instead of trying to pretend your mouth is an instrument, just say certain words or phrases repetitively that make those same sounds. Try “Baboons and Pigs” or “Bouncing Cats”.
不用伪装本人的嘴是某种乐器，你只须重复多少个发音同样的一定的词或短语，试试“Baboons and Pigs”或短语“Bouncing Cats”吧。