Section ⅡReading Comprehension
Harvard Men’s Health Watch
In 2010. a federal judge shook America's biotech industry to its core. Companies had won patents for isolated DNA for decades-by 2005 some 20% of human genes were parented. But in March 2010 a judge ruled that genes were unpatentable. Executives were violently agitated. The Biotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO)， a trade group, assured members that this was just a “preliminary step” in a longer battle. On July 29th they were relieved, at least temporarily. A federal appeals court overturned the prior decision, ruling that Myriad Genetics could indeed holb patents to two genss that help forecast a woman's risk ofbreast cancer. The chief executive of Myriad, a company in Utah,said the ruling was a blessing to firms and patients alike. But as companies continue their attempts at personalised medicine, the courts will remain rather busy. The Myriad case itself is probably not over Critics make three main arguments against gene patents: a gene is a product of nature, so it may not be patented; gene patents suppress innovation rather than reward it; and patents' monopolies restrict access to genetic testssuch as Myriad's. A growing number seem to agree.Last year a federal task-force urged reform for patents related to genetic tests. In October the Department of Justice filed a brief in the Myriad case, arguing that an isolated DNA molecule “is no less a product of nature... than are cotton fibres that have been separated from cotton seeds. ” Despite the appeals court's decision, big questions remain unanswered. For example, it is unclear whether the sequencing of a whole genome violates the patents of indivi dual genes within it. The case may yet reach the Supreme Court。
A neuroscientist reveals how to think differently
In the last decade a revolution has occurred in the way that scientists think about the brain. We now know that the decisions humans make can be traced to the firing patterns of neurons in specific parts of the brain. These discoveries have led to the field known as macroeconomics, which studies the brain's secrets to success in an economic environment that demands innovation and being able to do things differently from competitors . A brain that can do this is an iconoclastic one. Briefly, an iconoclast is a person who does something that others say can't be done.
This definition implies that iconoclasts are different from other people, but more precisely, it is their brains that are different in three distinct ways: perception, fear response, and social intelligence . Each of these three functions utilizes a different circuit in the brain. Naysayer might suggest that the brain is irrelevant, that thinking in an original, even revolutionary, way is more a matter of personality than brain function. But the field of macroeconomics was born out of the realization that the physical workings of the brain place limitations on the way we make decisions. By understanding these constraints, we begin to understand why some people march to a different drumbeat.
The first thing to realize is that the brain suffers from limited resources. It has a fixed energy budget, about the same as a 40 watt light bulb, so it has evolved to work as efficiently as possible. This is where most people are impeded from being an iconoclast. For example, when confronted with information streaming from the eyes, the brain will interpret this information in the quickest way possible. Thus it will draw on both past experience and any other source of information, such as what other people say, to make sense of what it is seeing . This happens all the time. The brain takes shortcuts that work so well we are hardly ever aware of them. We think our perceptions of the world are real, but they are only biological and electrical rumblings. Perception is not simply a product of what your eyes or ears transmit to your brain. More than the physical reality of photons or sound waves, perception is a product of the brain .
Perception is central to iconoclasm. Iconoclasts see things differently to other people. Their brains do not fall into efficiency pitfalls as much as the average person's brain . Iconoclasts, either because they were born that way or through learning, have found ways to work around the perceptual shortcuts that plague most people. Perception is not something that is hardwired into the brain. It is a learned process which is both a curse and an opportunity for change. The brain faces the fundamental problem of interpreting physical stimuli from the senses. Everything the brain sees, hears, or touches has multiple interpretations. The one that is ultimately chosen is simply the brain's best theory. In technical terms, these conjectures have their basis in the statistical likelihood of one interpretation over another and are heavily influenced by past experience and, importantly for potential iconoclasts, what other people say.
The best way to see things differently to other people is to bombard the brain with things it has never encountered before . Novelty releases the perceptual process from the chains of past experience and forces the brain to make new judgments.** Successful iconoclasts have an extraordinary willingness to be exposed to what is fresh and different **. Observation of iconoclasts shows that they embrace novelty while most people avoid things that are different.
The problem with novelty, however, is that it tends to trigger the brain's fear system.** Fear is a major impediment to thinking like an iconoclast and stops the average person in his tracks **. There are many types of fear, but the two that inhibit iconoclastic thinking and people generally find difficult to deal with are fear of uncertainty and fear of public ridicule. These may seem like trivial phobias. But fear of public speaking, which everyone must do from time to time, afflicts one-third of the population. This makes it too common to be considered a mental disorder . It is simply a common variant of human nature, one which iconoclasts do not let inhibit their reactions.
Finally, to be successful iconoclasts, individuals must sell their ideas to other people. This is where social intelligence comes in. Social intelligence is the ability to understand and manage people in a business setting. In the last decade there has been an explosion of knowledge about the social brain and how the brain works when groups coordinate decision making . Neuroscience has revealed which brain circuits are responsible for functions like understanding what other people think, empathy, fairness, and social identity. These brain regions play key roles in whether people convince others of their ideas. Perception is important in social cognition too. The perception of someone's enthusiasm, or reputation, can make or break a deal. Understanding how perception becomes intertwined with social decision making shows why successful iconoclasts are so rare .
lconoclasts create new opportunities in every area from artistic expression to technology to business . They supply creativity and innovation not easily accomplished by committees. Rules aren't important to them. lconoclasts face alienation and failure, but can also be a major asset to any organization . It is crucial for success in any field to understand how the iconoclastic mind works.
Poet and pastor John Donne famously proclaimed “No man is an island.” It was true in his day, and because society has become increasingly complex and interdependent over the ensuing 400 years, it’s certainly true today. Studies in the modern era show that people can be good medicine and that individuals with strong social supports are healthier than those who are lonely and isolated. Married men, for example, are healthier than their single, divorced, or widowed peers.
AS the industry advances ,however,other suits may have an even greater impact.companies are unlikely to file many more patents for human DNA molecules-most are already patented or in the public domain .firms are now studying how genes intcract,looking for correlations that might be used to determine the causes of disease or predict a drug’s efficacy,companies are eager to win patents for ‘connecting the dits’,expaains hans sauer,alawyer for the BIO。
2.Word and Phrases
|words and phrases||chinese meaning|
|Be traced to||追溯到|
|Be born out of||生于；脱胎于|
|Place limitations on||限制……|
|March to a different drumbeat||独树一帜，标新立异|
|Be impeded from||某物在……受阻|
|Take a shortcut to||走捷径；抄近路|
|Fall into pitfall||调入陷阱|
|Hardwired into the brain||根植到大脑|
|In technical terms||从技术层次而言|
|Coordinate decision making||协商决策|
|Make a deal||成交；达成协议|
|Break a deal||打破协议|
It’s easy to understand how face-to-face interactions can be beneficial. But research suggests that social interactions have a ripple effect that extends far beyond household and family units. Some of these effects can promote health; others are detrimental. But whether for good or ill, these communitywide effects give networking a new meaning.
A Pending Threat to Patents
Their success may be determined by a suit related to this issue, brought by the Mayo Clinic, which the Supreme Court will hear in its next term. The BIO rtcently held a convention which included seddions to coach lawyers on the shifting landscape for patents. Each meeting was packed。
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letters in boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet.
27 Neuroeconomics is a field of study which seeks to
A cause a change in how scientists understand brain chemistry.
B understand how good decisions are made in the brain.
C understand how be brain is linked to achievement in competitive fields.
D trace the specific firing patterns of neurons in different areas of the brain.
28 According to the writer, iconoclasts are distinctive because
A they create unusual brain circuits.
B their brain function differently.
C their personalities are distinctive.
D they make decisions easily.
29 According to the writer, the brain works efficiently because
A it uses the eyes quickly.
B it interprets data logically.
C it generates its own energy.
D it relies on previous events.
30 The writer says that perception is
A a combination of photons and sound waves.
B a reliable product of what your senses transit.
C a result of brain processes.
D a process we are usually conscious of.
31 According to the writer, an iconoclastic thinker
A centralizes perceptual thinking in one part of the brain.
B avoids cognitive traps.
C has a brain that is hardwired for learning
D has more opportunities than the average person.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?
In boxes 32-37 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement agrees with the view of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the view of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
32 Exposure to different events forces the brain to think differently.
33 Iconoclasts are unusually receptive to new experiences.
34 Most people are too shy to try different things.
35 If you think in an iconoclastic way, you can easily overcome fear.
36 When concern about embarrassment matters less, other fears become irrelevant.
37 Fear of public speaking is a psychological illness.
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-E, below.
Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes 38-40 on your answer sheet.
38 Thinking like a successful iconoclast is demanding because it
39 The concept of the social brain is useful to iconoclasts because it
40 Iconoclasts are generally an asset because their way of thinking
A requires both perceptual and social intelligence skills.
B focuses on how groups decide on an action.
C works in many fields, both artistic and scientific.
D leaves one open to criticism and rejection.
E involves understanding how organizations manage people.
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A，B，C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
Obesity is an enormous health issue in the U.S. Since two of every three Americans are overweight or obese, it’s no stretch to say the problem has assumed epidemic proportions. There are many explanations for our expanding waistlines, starting with insufficient amounts of exercise and excessively large portions of inexpensive, calorie-dense prepared and processed foods. But is it possible that social interactions also play a role, and that the obesity epidemic is in part a contagious disease? An important study suggests that answer is yes.
Researchers from Harvard and the University of California investigated 12,067 people who had been evaluated medically on multiple occasions from 1971 to 2003 as part of the Framingham Heart Study. They found that if one sibling became obese during the study, the chance that another sibling would become obese increased by 40%. Genetics might account for some of the parallel weight gain in siblings, but not for the fact that if a spouse became obese, the likelihood that the other spouse would follow suit jumped by 37%. Shared meals and other lifestyle habits might explain that link, but the scientists also found that if a person had a friend who became obese, his chance of growing obese rose by 57%.
The impact of networks depended more on social status than physical proximity; obesity in a neighbor had much less influence than obesity in a friend, regardless of how far away the friend lived. Friends of the same sex were particularly influential; a man who had a male friend who became obese experienced a 100% increase in his own chance of becoming obese. And when two people regarded their friendship as mutual, obesity in one member of the pair increased the other’s likelihood of becoming obese by a staggering 171%.
Why does obesity spread in social networks? The effect extends far beyond the impact of genetics and shared environmental influences. The researchers did not specifically investigate diet and exercise patterns, but they did find that changes in smoking did not account for the spread of obesity in the Framingham network. Although scientists don’t fully understand how obesity spreads, they suspect a major factor is that a social network influences what its members perceive as normal and acceptable. If a man sees his friends become obese over time, he may accept weight gain as natural, even inevitable. Instead of exercising more or eating less when his own weight begins to creep up, he may simply go with the flow and join the crowd.
The notion that obesity is contagious may lend new weight to folks who claim “you make me sick.” But the same researchers who revealed the spread of obesity also tell us that networks can spread positive emotions as well.
by Michael Orey
31.it canbe learned from paragraph I that the biotech companies would like-----
Like the study of obesity, the Framingham Heart Study’s database was the foundation of the happiness study. In this case, 4,739 people who were tracked between 1983 and 2003 served as the primary study population. Together, these subjects reported a total of 53,228 social ties to family, friends, neighbors, and coworkers. Because scientists have kept a close eye on the Framingham volunteers since 1971 — over three generations — detailed medical and psychological information was available for many of these people.
The researchers used the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale to evaluate happiness at the start of the study and at subsequent follow-up examinations. Just as the obesity study provided information on how weight changed over time, the happiness study focused on changes in mood over time.
The Framingham study confirmed earlier findings that the strongest determinant of whether a person will be happy in the future is how happy he has been in the past. And the study also confirmed that healthy people tend to be happier than those who are ill; men tend to be a bit happier than women; and more educated people tend to be slightly happier than those with less schooling.
Previous research had validated the everyday observation that emotions are contagious over a very brief time frame; if one person in a room starts to laugh or cry, others often follow suit, but the effect wears off in minutes. But the Framingham study added an unexpected finding: happiness can also spread more diversely and broadly across social networks.
The scientists found that if one spouse became happy, the likelihood that the other spouse would become happy increased by 8%. Siblings who became happy increased the other sibling’s chance of becoming happy by 14%. But while the spread of obesity was not related to physical closeness, the spread of happiness did depend on distance. Spouses and friends only transmitted happiness to people living within a mile, and although obesity did not spread between neighbors, happiness did. But physical proximity on the job did not allow happiness to spread among coworkers.
Like obesity, happiness spread more readily between members of the same sex than between people of the opposite sex. Like obesity, the spread of happiness seemed to reach across at least three degrees of separation, spreading, for example, from a friend to the friend of a friend and then to the friend of that friend. But the impact diminishes with each degree of separation, and even within first-degree contacts, it begins to wane after six to 12 months.
Although the researchers did not discover exactly how happiness spreads across social networks, they did speculate on the positive role that spreading happiness may play. Humans are social beings, and the health and well-being of one person influences others. Since happiness and optimism are linked to better health and improved longevity, contagious happiness might have a beneficial effect on the health of an entire community. Interestingly, the Framingham study found that unhappiness does not spread across social networks. If emotions were the flu, that would mean that immunity could spread, but the virus itself could not — it’s a fantasy for the flu season that’s just kicking off, but it’s a real possibility for the way emotions spread.
Social isolation is a well-established heart attack risk factor, while strong interpersonal ties and community activities appear protective. Although studies show that marriage appears to improve the prognosis of prostate cancer, it’s not clear that social isolation is a cancer risk factor. A 2009 study from the University of Chicago suggests that isolation may have that effect — at least in female rats. As compared to animals who were allowed to live in groups of five, rats that were raised in isolation had a threefold increase in the risk of breast cancer, and their tumors were much more aggressive than the cancers that developed in the community dwellers. Changes in sex hormones did not appear to account for the difference, but excessive stress was a likely explanation.
Females are more gregarious than males, and men are not rats. Still, the animal experiment raises interesting questions for future human research.
Business Week February 21, 2008
A.their executives to be active
Recently, the right of public personalities to direct and profit from all commercial exploitations of their fame has gained widespread acceptance. Recognition of this “right of publicity,” however, has raised difficult questions concerning the proper scope and duration of the right as well as its relationship to free speech and free trade interests. Often, the “type” of personality, be it an entertainer, politician, or athlete, also weighs on this decision-making process.
A new science
Epidemics have plagued humans throughout history. Before scientists identified the microbes responsible for an epidemic as well as the way the germs spread from person to person, people blamed things like human misbehavior, divine intervention, and supernatural forces for epidemics ranging from the Black Death of the Middle Ages to the Spanish Flu of
- But now that doctors understand the way infections spread through communities, they can use tools such as immunization, hygiene, and the isolation of sick individuals to control epidemics.
Social-network science is much newer than epidemiology, and its eventual impact on medicine remains uncertain. The statistical methodology used in the Framingham research on obesity and happiness has come under fire. Still, the studies raise the intriguing possibility that noninfectious phenomena can spread across communities through social networks, and researchers have added alcohol consumption and depression to the list of things that may be affected by social networks.
Natural social networks may already have a substantial impact on health, and if doctors learn to harness them to spread healthful habits, positive attitudes, and wise lifestyle choices through communities, they may be able to improve public health. It might sound farfetched, but support groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Weight Watchers already function as small, artificial therapeutic networks.
More research is needed. Call it a network in progress.
Over the past decade, thousands of patents have been granted for what are called business methods. Amazon.com (AMZN) received one for its "one-click" online payment system. Merrill Lynch (MER) got legal protection for an asset allocation strategy. One inventor patented a technique for lifting a box。
B.judges to rule out gene patenting
The right of publicity protects economic interests of celebrities in their own fame by allowing them to control and profit from the publicity values which they have created. Before courts recognized this right, celebrities’ primary protection against the unauthorized commercial appropriation of their names or likenesses was a suit for invasion of privacy. Privacy law, however, proved to be an inadequate response to the legal questions presented by celebrities seeking to protect their economic interest in fame. Whereas privacy law protects a person’s right to be left alone, publicity law proceeds from adverse assumptions. Celebrities do not object to public attention—they thrive on it. However, they seek to benefit from any commercial use of their popularity.
Now the nation's top patent court appears poised to scale back on business-method patents, which have been controversial ever since they were first authorized 10 years ago (第二十六题 D答案对 the controversy over authorization). In a move that has intellectual-property lawyers abuzz, the 美利哥 Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit on Feb. 15 said it would use a case pending before it to conduct a broad review of business-method patents. In re Bilski, as the case is known, is "a very big deal," says Dennis D. Crouch, a patent professor at the University of Missouri School of Law. It "has the potential to eliminate an entire class of patents. (第二十七题 D答案对 it may change the legal practice in US)"
C.genes to be patcntablc
A celebrity’s public image has many aspects, each of which may be appropriated for a variety of purposes. Plaintiffs(persons bringing a suit) have sought to protect various attributes including: name, likeness, a particular routine or act, characters made famous by their celebrity, unique style, and biographical information. In deciding whether the right of publicity applies to particular attribute, courts consider underlying legal and policy goals.
Curbs on business-method claims would be a dramatic about-face (第二十八题 C答案对，change of the attitude，因为背后说联邦巡回法庭从前是很协助商业形式上的专利的，不过以往大概完全不扶助了)， because it was the Federal Circuit itself that ushered in such patents with its 壹玖玖捌 decision in the so-called State Street Bank (STT) case, approving a patent on a way of pooling mutual-fund assets. That ruling produced an explosion in business-method patent filings, initially by nascent Internet companies trying to stake out exclusive rights to specific types of online transactions. Later, more established companies raced to add such patents to their portfolios, if only as a defensive move against rivals that might beat them to the punch. In 2007, IBM (IBM) noted in a court filing that it had been issued more than 300 business-method patents, despite the fact that it questioned the legal basis for granting them. Similarly, some Wall Street investment firms armed themselves with patents for financial products, even as they took positions in court cases opposing the practice。
D.the BIO to issue a warning
Two goals support recognition of the right of publicity: the promotion of creative endeavor and prevention of unjust enrichment through the theft of goodwill. Courts determine the scope of publicity rights by balancing these policies against offsetting First Amendment and free trade interests. Recognizing the celebrity’s ability to control the exercise of some personal attribute may limit the “speech” of would-be appropriators and give the celebrity a commercial monopoly. Thus, the value of promoting creativity and preventing unjust enrichment must outweigh negative constitutional and commercial repercussions(effects) before courts extend the right of publicity to any particular attribute.
The Bilski case involves a claimed patent on a method for hedging risk in the energy market. The Federal Circuit issued an unusual order stating that the case would be heard by all 12 of the court's judges, rather than a typical panel of three, and that one issue it wants to uate is whether it should "reconsider" its State Street Bank ruling。
32.those who are against gene patents believe that----
The value of a publicity right in a particular attribute depends largely on the length of time such a right is recognized and protected by the law. Courts disagree on whether publicity rights survive the death of their creators. Some courts advocate unconditional devisability. They emphasize that the ability to control exploitation of fame is a property right, carrying all the characteristics of the title. Other courts conclude that the right of publicity terminates at the celebritys death. These courts fear that recognizing postmortem(after-death) publicity rights would negatively affect free speech and free trade.
The Federal Circuit's action comes in the wake of a series of recent decisions by the Supreme Court that has narrowed the scope of protections for patent holders. Last April, for example, the justices signaled that too many patents were being upheld for "inventions" that are obvious. (第二十九题B答案对are often unnecessarily issued。以后美利坚联邦合众国最最高人民公诉机关查机关已经收紧了宣布专利的限量，那么联邦巡回法庭也会牢牢对商业方式的专利的稽审)The judges on the Federal Circuit are "reacting to the anti-patent trend at the Supreme Court," says 哈罗德 C. Wegner, a patent attorney and professor at 吉优rge Washington University Law School。
A.genetic tests are not reliable
The right of publicity, especially in the cases of well-known politicians and statesmen, often conflicts with First Amendment interests and thus should be defined with care and precision.
纵观全文，最终二个标题第三十题，作为宗旨题，答案应该是 A looming threat to business-method patents
B.only man-made products are patentable
21. According to the author, privacy laws are inadequate for celebrities because
26. Business-method patents have recently aroused concern because of
C.patents on genes depend much on innovatiaon
9159com金沙网站， ［A］ individuals lose privacy rights by becoming public figures.
[A] their limited value to business
D.courts should restrict access to gene tic tests
［B］ stars wish to create higher value by keeping from the public.
[B] their connection with asset allocation
33.according to hans sauer ,companies are eager to win patents for----
［C］ the unauthorized use of celebrities’images is beyond remedy.
[C] the possible restriction on their granting
A.establishing disease comelations
［D］ economic issues inherent in their fame are ignored by the laws.
[D] the controversy over authorization
B.discovering gene interactions
22. The text implies that the judicial response to “right of publicity” issues has been
27. Which of the following is true of the Bilski case?
C.drawing pictures of genes
［A］ inconclusive. ［B］ impractical.
[A] Its ruling complies with the court decisions
D.identifying human DNA
［C］ justifiable. ［D］ significant.
[B] It involves a very big business transaction
34.By saying “each meeting was packed”(line4,para6)the author means that -----
23. We learn that a feature of “devisability”(Par.5) is the ability to be
[C] It has been dismissed by the Federal Circuit
A.the supreme court was authoritative
［A］ split into diverse legal entities.
[D] It may change the legal practices in the U.S。
B.the BIO was a powerful organization
［B］ assigned by the celebrity’s will.
28. The word “about-face” (Line 1, Para 3) most probably means
C.gene patenting was a great concern
［C］ structured in several equal shares.
[A] loss of good will
D.lawyers were keen to attend conventiongs
［D］ traded with the owner’s permission.
[B] increase of hostility
35.generally speaking ,the author’s attitude toward gene patenting is----
24. Which of the following would most reasonably call upon the “right of publicity”?
[C] change of attitude
［A］ A famous athlete plans to design and market a line of sportswear.
[D] enhancement of density
［B］ The work of a celebrated screen actor is re-edited after his death.
29. We learn from the last two paragraphs that business-method patents
［C］ A portion of a professor’s book is cited in a student’s paper.
[A] are immune to legal challenges
［D］ The image of a TV host is used in an ad campaign for a drug.
[B] are often unnecessarily issued
25. Which of the following statements best summarizes the chief ideas of the text?
[C] lower the esteem for patent holders
The great recession may be over, but this era of high joblessness is probably beginning. Before it ends,
［A］ Publicity law is an appropriate legal remedy for public figures.
[D] increase the incidence of risks
it will likely change the life course and character of a generation of young adults. And ultimately, it is likely to reshape our politics,our culture, and the character of our society for years。
［B］ Approaches to publicity law cases contradict free trade interests.
30. Which of the following would be the subject of the text?
No one tries harder than the jobless to find silver linings in this national economic disaster. Many said that unemployment, while extremely painful, had improved them in some ways; they had become less materialistic and more financially prudent; they were more aware of the struggles of others. In limited respects, perhaps the recession will leave society better off. At the very least, it has awoken us from our national fever dream of easy riches and bigger houses, and put a necessary end to an era of reckless personal spending。
［C］ The legal issues about the right of publicity are unresolved fully.
[A] A looming threat to business-method patents
But for the most part, these benefits seem thin, uncertain, and far off. In The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth, the economic historian Benjamin Friedman argues that both inside and outside the U.S. ,lengthy periods of economic stagnation or decline have almost always left society more mean-spirited and less inclusive, and have usually stopped or reversed the advance of rights and freedoms. Anti-immigrant sentiment typically increases, as does conflict between races and classes。
［D］ The promotion of creative endeavor justifies the right of publicity.
[B] Protection for business-method patent holders
Income inequality usually falls during a recession, but it has not shrunk in this one,. Indeed, this period of economic weakness may reinforce class divides, and decrease opportunities to cross them--- especially for young people. The research of Till Von Wachter, the economist in Columbia University, suggests that not all people graduating into a recession see their life chances dimmed: those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times; it is the masses beneath them that are left behind。
[C] A legal case regarding business-method patents
In the internet age, it is particularly easy to see the resentment that has always been hidden winthin American society. More difficult, in the moment , is discerning precisely how these lean times are affecting society’s character. In many respects, the U.S. was more socially tolerant entering this resession than at any time in its history, and a variety of national polls on social conflict since then have shown mixed results. We will have to wait and see exactly how these hard times will reshape our social fabric. But they certainly it, and all the more so the longer they extend。
Science-fiction movies can serve as myths about the future and thus give some assurance about it. Whether the film is 2001 or Star Wars，such movies tell about progress that will expand man’s powers and his experiences beyond anything now believed possible，while they assure us that all these advances will not wipe out man or life as we now know it. Thus one great anxiety about the future—that it will have no place for us as we now are—is alleviated by such myths. They also promise that even in the most distant future，and despite the progress that will have occurred in the material world，man’s basic concerns will be the same，and the struggle of good against evil—the central moral problem of our time—will not have lost its importance..
[D] A prevailing trend against business-method patents
36.By saying “to find silver linings”(Line 1,Para.2)the author suggest that the jobless try to___。
Past and future are the lasting dimensions of our lives: the present is but a brief moment. So these visions about the future also contain our past; in Star Wars，battles are fought around issues that also motivated man in the past. Thus，any vision about the future is really based on visions of the past，because that is all we can know for certain.
Text 2 参谋答案 26-30题 DD中国篮球职业联赛
[A]seek subsidies from the govemment
As our religious myths about the future never went beyond Judgment Day，so our modern myths about the future cannot go beyond the search for life’s deeper meaning. The reason is that only as long as the choice between good and evil remains man’s supreme moral problem does life retain that special dignity that derives from our ability to choose between the two. A world in which this conflict has been permanently resolved eliminates man as we know him. It might be a universe peopled by angels，but it has no place for man.
[B]explore reasons for the unermployment
The moving picture is a visual art，based on sight. Speaking to our vision，it ought to provide us with the visions enabling us to live the good life; it ought to give us insight into ourselves. About a hundred years ago，Tolstoy wrote,“Art is a human activity having for its purpose the transmission to others of the highest and best feelings to which men have risen.” Later，Robert Frost defined poetry as “beginning in delight and ending in wisdom.” Thus it might be said that the state of the art of the moving image can be assessed by the degree to which it meets the mythopoetic task of giving us myths suitable to live by in our time—visions that transmit to us the highest and best feelings to which men have risen—and by how well the moving images give us that delight which leads to wisdom. Let us hope that the art of the moving image, this most genuine American art，will soon meet the challenge of becoming truly the great art of our age.
The Accidental Influentials
[C]make profits from the troubled economy
26. In the author’s view，science-fiction movies
Harvard Business Review 2007 02
[D]look on the bright side of the recession
［A］ assure us of the scientific miracles created.
In his best-selling book The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell argues that “social epidemics” are driven in large part by the actions of a tiny minority of special individuals, often called influentials, who are unusually informed, persuasive, or well connected. The idea is intuitively compelling – we think we see it happening all the time – but it doesn’t explain how ideas actually spread。
37.According to Paragraph 2,the recession has made people_____。
［B］ predict likely advances in human experiences.
The supposed importance of influentials derives from a plausible-sounding but largely untested theory called the “two-step flow of communication”： Information flows from the media to the influentials and from them to everyone else. Marketers have embraced the two-step flow because it suggests that if they can just find and influence the influentials, those select people will do most of the work for them. The theory also seems to explain the sudden and unexpected popularity of certain looks, brands, or neighborhoods. In many such cases, a cursory search for causes finds that some small group of people was wearing, promoting, or developing whatever it is before anyone else paid attention. Anecdotal evidence of this kind fits nicely with the idea that only certain special people can drive trends。
[A]realize the national dream
［C］ offer invented stories concerning man’s fate.
In recent work, however, my colleague Peter Dodds and I have found that influentials have far less impact on social epidemics than is generally supposed. In fact, they don’t seem to be required at all。
[B]struggle against each other
［D］ signify human powers to a fantastic extent.
Our argument stems from a simple observation about social influence: With the exception of celebrities like Oprah Winfrey – whose outsize presence is primarily a function of media, not interpersonal, influence – even the most influential members of a population simply don’t interact with that many others. Yet it is precisely these noncelebrity influentials who, according to the two-step-flow theory, are supposed to drive social epidemics, by influencing their friends and colleagues directly. For a social epidemic to occur, however, each person so affected must then influence his or her own acquaintances, who must in turn influence theirs, and so on; and just how many others pay attention to each of these people has little to do with the initial influential. If people in the network just two degrees removed from the initial influential prove resistant, for example, the cascade of change won’t propagate very far or affect many people。
[C]challenge their lifestyle
27. In science-fiction movies,man can find
Building on this basic truth about interpersonal influence, Dodds and I studied the dynamics of social contagion by conducting thousands of computer simulations of populations, manipulating a number of variables relating to people’s ability to influence others and their tendency to be influenced. Our work shows that the principal requirement for what we call “global cascades”– the widespread propagation of influence through networks – is the presence not of a few influentials but, rather, of a critical mass of easily influenced people, each of whom adopts, say, a look or a brand after being exposed to a single adopting neighbor. Regardless of how influential an individual is locally, he or she can exert global influence only if this critical mass is available to propagate a chain reaction。
[D]reconsider their lifestyle
［A］ fantasies that may relieve his anxiety for future existence.
31.By citing the book The Tipping Point, the author intends to
38.Benjamin Friedman believe that economic recessions may_____。
［B］ forecasts that his domination will be extended indefinitely.
[A]analyze the consequences of social epidemics
[A]impose a heavier burden on immigrants
［C］ promises that his swelling demands will be fully satisfied.
[B]discuss influentials’ function in spreading ideas
[B]bring out more evils of human nature
［D］ assurances that confirm the importance of moral principles.
[C]exemplify people’s intuitive response to social epidemics
[C]Promote the advance of rights and freedoms
28. The movies such as Star Wars
[D]describe the essential characteristics of influentials。
[D]ease conflicts between races and classes
［A］ fail to reflect contemporary problems for their transience.
32.The author suggests that the “two-step-flow theory”
39.The research of Till Von Wachther suggests that in recession graduates from elite universities tend to _____。
［B］ fail to free their subjects from issues of man’s concerns.
[A]serves as a solution to marketing problems
[A]lag behind the others due to decreased opportunities
［C］ succeed in depicting magic scenes irrelevant to the past.
[B]has helped explain certain prent trends
[B]catch up quickly with experienced employees
［D］ succeed in offering imaginary visions irrespective of reality.
[C]has won support from influentials
[C]see their life chances as dimmed as the others’
29. The theme of modern myths could be drastically changed
[D]requires solid evidence for its validity
[D]recover more quickly than the others
［A］ only if the struggle for good life were fully discarded.
33.what the researchers have observed recently shows that
40.The author thinks that the influence of hard times on society is____。
［B］ if only the conflict between good and evil had ceased.
[A] the power of influential goes with social interactions
［C］ on condition that man as he is now became extinct.
[B] interpersonal links can be enhanced through the media
［D］ provided that average people were converted to angels.
[C] influentials have more channels to reach the public
30. The quotes from Tolstoy are used to
[D] most celebrities enjoy wide media attention
［A］ reinforce the author’s account about visual art.
34.The underlined phrase “these people”in paragraph 4 refers to the ones who
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［B］ provide fresh points about the moving picture.
[A] stay outside the network of social influence
［C］ define the basic characteristics of art activities.
[B] have little contact with the source of influence
［D］ describe the requirements for the art transmission.
[C] are influenced and then influence others
[D] are influenced by the initial influential
Depletion is a natural phenomenon that characterizes the development of all non-renewable resources and oil in particular. Narrowly speaking, depletion refers to the decline of production associated with a particular field, reservoir, or well. If it were not for changes in prices, costs, and technology, depletion of the world’s resources would resemble the simple decline curve of a single well.
35.what is the essential element in the dynamics of social influence?
Estimates of oil resources by field are routinely made by geologists and engineers, but the estimates are a “best guess” given the available data and are revised as more knowledge becomes available. There is no time frame or probability associated with estimates of total resources in place. In contrast, proved reserves of crude oil are the estimated quantities that are demonstrated with reasonable certainty to be recoverable in the future from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions.
[A]The eagerness to be accepted
Each year, production is taken from proved reserves, reducing both proved reserves and the total resource. Innovative production techniques such as well recompletions, secondary and tertiary enhanced recovery techniques, and expanded production of unconventional resources have reduced net depletion rates at the well and field levels. Advanced exploration and drilling techniques have reduced the cost of finding new pools, reduced the risk of dry holes and their costs, and allowed new pools to be developed and produced more quickly. More rapid production of resources from a field increases the return on capital because earnings are realized sooner, and therefore, discounted less.
[B]The impulse to influence others
Higher returns make some fields that are too expensive to develop under “normal” circumstances economically feasible, because reduced costs allow firms to make profits where they could not before. On the other hand, more rapid development and production of a field by definition increases the rate of depletion. While the rate of depletion increases with technological progress, the adverse effects of depletion are diminished, and higher levels of production can be maintained for longer periods of time. As depletion leads producers to abandon older fields and develop new ones, the process of developing domestic oil resources leads producers to find and develop the larger, more economical fields first. Later fields tend to be less desirable because they are farther away from existing infrastructure or smaller in size. Thus, as time progresses more effort is required to produce the same level of the resource from the same exploration area.
[C]The readiness to be influenced
While the frontier for new resources is diminishing, increased innovation has, thus far, served to offset depletion at least partially, keeping production stronger than it would have been in the absence of the innovations. But eventually, as field sizes decrease, the ultimate recovery from discovered fields will shrink. Thus, despite technological improvements, ultimate recovery from the average field of the future will be smaller than from the average field today.
[D]The inclination to rely on others
Text 3 参照他事他说加以考察答案 31-35题 BDACC
① depletion n. 耗尽，短缺；多量减小 ② recoverable a. 可开发的
31. The text is primarily intended to
Banks and mark-to-market accounting
[A] sketch a plan to delay exhaustion of existing resources.
[B] warn of the consequence of overexploiting oil reserves.
April 8th, 2009
[C] introduce more efficient techniques for oil exploration.
36. Bankers complained that they were forced to
[D] analyse economic factors in oil production and depletion.
[A] follow unfavorable asset uation rules
32. According to the text, proved oil reserves
[B]collect payments from third parties
[A] are determined by geological principles.
[C]cooperate with the price managers
[B] require advanced techniques for recovery.
[D]reuate some of their assets。
[C] can parallel natural resources in diminution.
37.According to the author , the rule changes of the FASB may result in
[D] exist until their depletion is verified by experts.
[A]the diminishing role of management
33. The author implies that an oil well is removed from production when
[B]the revival of the banking system
[A] the capital for running it has been recovered.
[C]the banks’long-term asset losses
[B] the cost of its operation exceeds the return.
[D]the weakening of its independence
[C] new wells are superior to it in capacity.
38.According to Paragraph 4, McCreevy objects to the IASB’s attempt to
[D] its supply of oil is entirely interrupted.
[A]keep away from political influences。
34. Technological innovations offset natural depletion because they
[B]evade the pressure from their peers。
[A] make it profitable to locate and exploit more resources.
[C]act on their own in rule-setting。
[B] reduce the ratio of proved reserves to actual quantities.
[D]take gradual measures in reform。
[C] permit to explore more fields with larger reservoirs.
39.The author thinks the banks were “on the wrong planet ”in that they
[D] minimize capital expenditures in fuel production.
[A]misinterpreted market price indicators
35. Which of the following is most likely to result in an increase in proved reserves?
[B]exaggerated the real value of their assets
[A] Increased oil production by foreign sources.
[C]neglected the likely existence of bad debts。
[B] A significant soaring in the price of crude oil.
[D]denied booking losses in their sale of assets。
[C] A reduction in estimates of total oil resources.
40.The author’s attitude towards standard-setters is one of
[D] Federal regulations requiring cleaner engines.
While disease is present prior to social organization，communal life creates special hazards. While the organization of society can reduce the dangers of disease，trade and urbanization，with their consequent problems of sanitation and pollution，can also aggravate such dangers. Even in the mid-twentieth century，during the brief calm between the polio and AIDS epidemics，epidemic health risks associated with carcinogens(cancer-producing substances) from polluted air threatened the industrialized world.
To the economist，efforts to combat these risks are at least partially public goods. The benefits from public goods are indivisible among beneficiaries. A sole private purchaser of health care would give others in society a “free ride” with respect to the benefits obtained. To market theorists，such goods are lawful objects of governmental intervention in the market. While the theory of public goods helps explain aspects of public health law and assists in fitting it into modern economic theory，it omits a critical point. Ill health is not a mere byproduct of economic activity，but an inevitable occurrence of human existence. As a result，wherever there is human society，there will be public health. Every society has to face the risks of disease. And because it must，every society searches to make disease comprehensible within the context of the society’s own particular culture，religion，or science. In this sense，health care is public not only because its benefits are indivisible and threats to it arise from factors outside of the individual but also because communal life gives individuals the cultural context in which to understand it.
Governments typically have assumed an active role with respect to health care，acting as if their role were obligatory. How governments have fulfilled that duty has varied throughout time and across societies，according not only to the wealth and scientific sophistication of the culture but also to its fundamental values—because health is defined in part by a community’s belief system，public health measures will necessarily reflect cultural norms and values.
Text 4 参考答案36-40题 ADCBD
Those who criticize the United States government today for not providing health care to all citizens equate the provision of health care with insurance coverage for the costs of medical expenses. By this standard，seventeenth and eighteenth-century America lacked any significant conception of public health law. However，despite the general paucity (scarcity) of bureaucratic organization in preindustrial America，the vast extent of health regulation and provision stands out as remarkable. Of course，the public role in the protection and regulation of eighteenth-century health was carried out in ways quite different from those today. Organizations responsible for health regulation were less stable than modern bureaucracies，tending to appear in crises and fade away in periods of calm. The focus was on epidemics which were seen as unnatural and warranting a response，not to the many prevalent and chronic conditions which were accepted as part and parcel of daily life. Additionally，and not surprisingly，religious influence was significant，especially in the seventeenth century. Finally，in an era which lacked sharp divisions between private and governmental bodies，many public responsibilities were carried out by what we would now consider private associations. Nevertheless，the extent of public health regulation long before the dawn of the welfare state is remarkable and suggests that the founding generation’s assumptions about the relationship between government and health were more complex than commonly assumed.
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36. The author’s primary purpose is to
［A］ comment on the government role in health-care provision.
［B］ argue about the social organization’s tasks concerning health care.
［C］ trace the historical development of the national health-care system.
［D］ discuss the societal duty to make provision against epidemic diseases.
37. The author mentions all of the following as causes of epidemic diseases EXCEPT
［A］ expanding international trade.
［B］ rapid general urbanization.
毕金献08考研阿尔巴尼亚语模拟题三阅读领悟一些，二零一零考研部分阅读题源解析及参谋答案。 ［C］ inadequate sanitation facilities.
［D］ poor preventive measures.
38. Health care is inherently a public concern for all of the following reasons EXCLUDING
［A］ the indivisibility of its benefits among its receivers.
［B］ the impact of societal factors on the individual’s health.
［C］ the government obligation to provide health care for its people.
［D］ the comprehension of disease within a particular cultural context.
39. Which of the following finds the LEAST support in the text?
［A］ Government involvement in health care is characterized by action.
［B］ Philosophical considerations weigh less in making health policies.
［C］ Health organizations took common diseases as an essential part of daily life.
［D］ Modern public health agencies provide comprehensive protection against most diseases.
40. Which of the following best expresses the main point of the last paragraph?
［A］ The government precautions against diseases have failed many critics.
［B］ The government should spare no efforts on preventing epidemic diseases.
［C］ History witnessed government contribution to the provision of health care.
［D］ Health problems prior to the welfare state arose largely for lack of funds.
The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41～45，you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A—G to fill in each numbered box. The first and last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
［A］ These difficulties are compounded by question-marks caused by government policy proposals，for example，concerning moves from direct to indirect taxation or regulations concerning the introduction of lead-free petrol. Increasingly，consumers may find that structural changes in the world economy are undermining expectations about employment and promotion prospects that they have long taken for granted; yet new opportunities may not instantly stand out. Added to these worries are new puzzles arising from social changes such as the rise of the Women’s Movement—for example，how a couple might carve out two careers as a joint future without these endangering each other. Given this，one might expect that economists would devote a good deal of attention to the ways in which consumers set about making up their minds in situations of uncertainty and complexity.
［B］ Unfortunately，this has not been the case. The typical economist proceeds to analyze consumer behavior in a way which makes the problem of choice trivial. The individual consumer is portrayed as if she already has a completely specified set of preferences and seeks to maximize her utility subject to three constraints: her accumulated human and non-human capital，the state of technology，and the prevailing set of relative prices. The consumer’s prior investments in her own skills，coupled with her initial endowment of human capital，determine her employment opportunities. The latter，in turn，constrain her in respect of the commodities she will be able and inclined to purchase，given the prevailing set of prices.
［C］ If opportunities are not to be thrown needlessly away，the consumer must be a skilled spectator and strategist. Instability in exchange rates and inflation rates，and the unevenness with which inflationary forces feed through the system，makes it difficult to assess trends in respect to relative prices，including real wages.
［D］ Having assumed that the consumer is able to rank hypothetical bundles of consumption goods and employment obligations in order of preference，it is not surprising that the typical economist comes to think of the consumer simply as if she selects the highest-ranking bundle from her feasible set. What we have is an example of what Herbert Simon calls “substantive rationality”: the achievement of given goals within the limits imposed by given conditions.
［E］ Technological change results in flux in the qualities and varieties of goods on offer，while the increasing complexity of modern products opens up scope for expensive errors when consumer durables are being purchased: the modern consumer cannot hope to be an expert buyer in all markets.
［F］How the consumer works out what these “given conditions” might be is not discussed. The economist theories as if the consumer has defined her problem in advance in a way that makes its solution transparent，and then allows her on to the stage seemingly to solve it.
［G］Being a consumer is not an easy role to play successfully，even in an affluent society. Consumers have to act in a complex，unsettled world where surprises are commonplace and not more deviations around a trend，a world full of novelty and obsolescence，a world that is，in short，turbulent.
G →41. →42. →43. →44. →45. →F
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation must be written neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
Justice in society must include both a fair trial to the accused and the selection of an appropriate punishment for those proven guilty. Because justice is regarded as one form of equality，we find in its earlier expressions the idea of a punishment equal to the crime. Recorded in the Bible is the expression “an eye for an eye，and a tooth for a tooth.” That is，the individual who has done wrong has committed an offense against society. 46) To make repayment for this offense，society must get equally balanced，which can be done only by imposing an equal injury upon him. 47) This conception of deserved-punishment justice is reflected in many parts of the legal codes and procedures of modern times，which is illustrated when we demand the death penalty for a person who has committed murder. This philosophy of punishment was supported by the German idealist Hegel，who believed that society owed it to the criminal to put into operation a punishment equal to the crime he had committed. 48) The criminal had by his own actions denied his true self and it is necessary to do something that will eliminate this denial and restore the self that has been denied. To the murderer nothing less than giving up his own life will pay his debt. The demand for the death penalty is a right the state owes the criminal and it should not deny him what he deserves.
Modern jurists have tried to replace deserved-punishment justice with the notion of corrective justice. The aim of the latter is not to abandon the concept of equality but to find a more adequate way to express it. It tries to preserve the idea of equal opportunity for each individual to realize the best that is in him. 49) The criminal is regarded as being socially ill and in need of treatment that will enable him to become a normal member of society. Before a treatment can be put into operation，the cause of his antisocial behavior must be found. If the cause can be removed，provisions must be made to have this done. Only those criminals who are incurable should be permanently separated from the rest of society. This does not mean that criminals will escape punishment or be quickly returned to take up careers of crime. It means that justice is to heal the individual，not simply to get even with him. If severe punishment is the only adequate means for accomplishing this，it should be administered. 50) However，the individual should be given every opportunity to assume a normal place in society，and his conviction of crime must not deprive him of the opportunity to make his way in the society of which he is a part.
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